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Influence of Heat Treatments on Microstructure of Electron Beam Additive Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
Damir Skuhala, 2020, magistrsko delo

Opis: Additive manufacturing of metallic parts is increasing in popularity and starting to emerge as a new competitive manufacturing process. Printed structures from Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy, produced by electron beam additive manufacturing (EBAM), possess columnar prior β grains and layer bands, alongside an ultrafine lamellar microstructure, which is prone to low ductility and thus requiring thermal post-processing. Several heat treatments were performed in α + β and β field, in one or multiple stages. The results showed that bi-lamellar microstructure can be obtained, and that selection of annealing temperature and cooling rate determines the morphology, thickness, and distribution of both primary and secondary α features. Mechanical properties were evaluated on three selected heat treatments. Annealing of the As-built condition was performed at 710°C (HT1) and 870°C (HT2), resulting in lamellar microstructure with basketweave morphology. In two-stage heat treatment (HT3), the temperature in the first stage has exceeded β transus, while in the second, annealing was performed again at 870°C. The microstructure was characterized as a mixture of lamellar and bi-lamellar with large α colonies inside the rearranged prior β grains. Air cooling was performed in all HT from the final annealing stage. Strength and hardness have decreased with increasingly coarser microstructural features, while fracture toughness was improved, except in HT1, where the decrease in the fracture toughness was mainly attributed to reduced intrinsic toughening. As-built and HT1 conditions were effected by microstructural texture, causing inconsistent fracture morphology, reduced crack roughness and scattering in results. The influence of texture was decreased by coarser microstructure in HT2, while crack tortuosity was increased. Very unpredictable fracture behaviour was observed in HT3 due to large α colonies, as their orientation determines the areas of ductile or cleavage crack propagation.
Ključne besede: Titanium alloys, Ti-6Al-4V, additive manufacturing, EBAM, heat treatments, microstructural optimization, mechanical properties, fracture toughness
Objavljeno: 11.05.2020; Ogledov: 456; Prenosov: 119
.pdf Celotno besedilo (25,14 MB)

Deformation and energy parameters of fracture of steel of the main gas pipeline
P. O. Maruščak, Sergey Panin, Ulyana Polyvana, Tomaž Vuherer, Anna Guzanová, Janette Brezinová, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: By example of steel 17G1S, the regularities in the impact fracture of Charpy specimens at normal and low temperatures are described. The relationship between the energy parameters of fracture (impact toughness) and the deformation response of the material (the height of shear lips) of the specimens from the pipe steel is established. The micromechanisms of impact fracture of the material are described. At 20 °C and –30 °C, focal splitting of the material was observed on the fracture surface of specimens; at –60 °C, the material failed in a brittle manner by the mechanism of cleavage.
Ključne besede: impact toughness, main gas pipeline, failure analysis
Objavljeno: 08.08.2017; Ogledov: 600; Prenosov: 306
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,03 MB)
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Intelligent system for prediction of mechanical properties of material based on metallographic images
Matej Paulič, David Močnik, Mirko Ficko, Jože Balič, Tomaž Irgolič, Simon Klančnik, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This article presents developed intelligent system for prediction of mechanical properties of material based on metallographic images. The system is composed of two modules. The first module of the system is an algorithm for features extraction from metallographic images. The first algorithm reads metallographic image, which was obtained by microscope, followed by image features extraction with developed algorithm and in the end algorithm calculates proportions of the material microstructure. In this research we need to determine proportions of graphite, ferrite and ausferrite from metallographic images as accurately as possible. The second module of the developed system is a system for prediction of mechanical properties of material. Prediction of mechanical properties of material was performed by feed-forward artificial neural network. As inputs into artificial neural network calculated proportions of graphite, ferrite and ausferrite were used, as targets for training mechanical properties of material were used. Training of artificial neural network was performed on quite small database, but with parameters changing we succeeded. Artificial neural network learned to such extent that the error was acceptable. With the oriented neural network we successfully predicted mechanical properties for excluded sample.
Ključne besede: artificial neural network, factor of phase coherence between the surfaces, fracture toughness, image processing, mechanical properties, metallographic image, ultimate tensile strength, yield strength
Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 699; Prenosov: 340
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,02 MB)
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Weldability prediction of high strength steel S960QL after weld thermal cycle simulation
Marko Dunđer, Tomaž Vuherer, Ivan Samardžić, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This paper presents weld thermal cycle simulation of high strength steel S960QL, and describes influence of cooling time t8/5 on hardness and impact toughness of weld thermal cycle simulated specimens. Furthermore, it presents analysis of characteristic fractions done by electron scanning microscope which can contribute to determination of welding parameters for S960QL steel.
Ključne besede: high strength steels, S960QL steel, weldability, weld thermal cycle simulation, hardness, toughness
Objavljeno: 03.07.2017; Ogledov: 2078; Prenosov: 102
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,16 MB)
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The influence of simulated thermal cycle on the formation of microstructures of multi-pass weld metal
Danilo Rojko, Vladimir Gliha, 2005, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The influence of weld thermal cycle on the micrstructural changes in weld metal by use of the simulated microstructures. We examined the kinetics of the formation of austenite from the starting microstructure. The simulated microstructures were prepared by the application of simulated thermal cycles with different peak temperatures on a sample of real single-pass weld metal. The reproduction of thermal cycles were carried out by the SMITWELD simulator. Special attention was dedicated to the influence of thermal cycle on the formation of microstructures, which can be potential triggers of brittle fracture (local brittle zones).
Ključne besede: welding, welded joints, multi-pass weld metal, simulated microstructure, impact toughness
Objavljeno: 03.07.2017; Ogledov: 1543; Prenosov: 80
.pdf Celotno besedilo (223,13 KB)
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Charpy toughness of vibrated microstructures
Bogdan Pučko, Vladimir Gliha, 2005, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of vibration on impact toughness of weld metal. Studies were carried out on two welds, of which one had been welded with applying vibration during welding. From test plates samples were made to simulate heat affect in combination with or without vibration after solidification. In this way conditions at multi-pass welding were simulated. According to different conditions Charpy toughness on non standard specimens and fracture appearance were observed. Vibration during welding benefits impact energy of weld metal, especially if weld metal undergoes further heatb treatment.
Ključne besede: welded joints, impact toughness, vibration, Charpy toughness, SAW
Objavljeno: 03.07.2017; Ogledov: 475; Prenosov: 82
.pdf Celotno besedilo (118,79 KB)
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Low temperature impact toughness of the main gas pipeline steel after long-term degradation
P. O. Maruščak, Irina Danyliuk, R.T. Biščak, Tomaž Vuherer, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The correlation of microstructure, temperature and Charpy V-notch impact properties of a steel 17G1S pipeline steel was investigated in this study. Within the concept of physical mesomechanics, the dynamic failure of specimens is represented as a successive process of the loss of shear stability, which takes place at different structural/scale levels of the material. Characteristic stages are analyzed for various modes of failure, moreover, typical levels of loading and oscillation periods, etc. are determined. Relations between low temperature derived through this test, microstructures and Charpy (V-notch) toughness test results are also discussed in this paper.
Ključne besede: impact toughness, fracture, damage, gas pipeline, steel, degradation
Objavljeno: 03.04.2017; Ogledov: 696; Prenosov: 334
.pdf Celotno besedilo (699,32 KB)
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Flaw acceptability assessment detected in HSLA steel weld joints
Inoslav Rak, 1999, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The flow size in weld joint can be determined by non destructive examination (NDE). Because of different mateials, and loading as well as because of the possible effect of corrosive environment the question arises how to assess reliably the allowable falw size in different weld joint parts. The presence of flaws is obvious but the possibilities of their revealing are limited and not always posssible. The flaw size and distribution are the essential parameters for the structure capacity of bearing under high loading the weld joint. The larger is the allowable flaw size anticipated, the safer is the welded structure, and the easiest is the detection of the flaw size by NDE methods. Thus for assessing the safety of complex loaded welded structure, machine parts or equipment life time, it is obligatory to consider the requirements of different "Fitness for Purpose" systems. The article presents the possibility of assessing the detected flaw by means of NDE if the material fracture toughness of the area where the fatigue crack tip located is known. The fatigue crack represents the severest discontinuity that can occur in a welded joint. The principles of IIW Guidance on Assessment of The Fitness for Purpose of Welded Structures - IIW/IIS-SST-1157-90 and BS PD 6493 and separately ETM that treats mis-matched weld joints are shown and used.
Ključne besede: zvarni spoji, dopustna velikost napake, lomna žilavost, trdnostna heterogenost, primernost za uporabo, weld joint, allowable flaw size, fracture toughness, strength mis-match, fitness for purpose
Objavljeno: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 848; Prenosov: 10
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Weld joint fracture behaviour of HSLA steels dissimilar in strength
Inoslav Rak, Arpad Treiber, 1998, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The effect of strength differences (mismatch) between weld metal and two base metals as well as local variations of strength within weld metal/HAZ zones on the toughness properties were discussed. The significance of local fracture toughness measurement technique was also discussed by comparing the CTOD results of [delta]5 and British Standard [delta]BS. Some differences between the two techniqes were discussed in particular for CGHAZ toughness of similar and dissimilar joints.
Ključne besede: welding, welded joints, fracture mechanics, HSLA steels, fracture toughness
Objavljeno: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 826; Prenosov: 23
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Role of residual stresses on fracture properties of under-matched butt weld
Inoslav Rak, Vladimir Gliha, 1999, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Under-matched weld joints were adopted for producing a penstock of 47 mm wall thickness and 4200 mm diameter, to improve the weldability. The isothermal Robertson wide plate test on the under-matched weld joints, were the allowable stress level was 0.6 of the yield stress, proved that the longitudinal stresses caused the crack propagation alog the weld joint to deviate into tough base material where it was arrested. The arrest temperature was between -10 and -20°C. The behaviour of the crack propagation was the reason to omit the thermal stress relieving of the pipe section and on circumferential weld joints executed on this side. One can always take into consideration the role of axial residual stresses when assessing whether to use, or not, under-matched weld joints in severer loaded structures.
Ključne besede: strjeni zvar z nižjo mejo tečenja, zaostale napetosti, potek loma, lastnosti ujetja, lomna žilavost, under-matched weld joint, residual stresses, fracture path, arrest properties, fracture toughness
Objavljeno: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 901; Prenosov: 24
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