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1.
The Thermochemical Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste by Torrefaction Process
Maja Ivanovski, Darko Goričanec, Danijela Urbancl, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In this work, the thermochemical properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are studied using the torrefaction process as the main method for investigation. Torrefaction experiments were carried out using an electric laboratory furnace, at temperatures of 200, 250, and 300 °C. The residence time was set to 90 min. Proximate and ultimate analysis were performed on the torrefied MSW samples and compared with the properties of the raw MSW samples. In addition, the thermal properties of the obtained torrefied MSW samples were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG). The following could be stated: the obtained results showed that mass and energy yields (MY and EY, respectively) decrease with increasing when torrefaction temperature, while the heating values (HHV) increased under the same conditions (from 24.3 to 25.1 MJ/kg). Elemental analysis showed an increase in carbon content (C), from 45.7 ± 0.9 to 52.8 ± 1.05 wt.%, and decrease in oxygen content (O), from 45.6 ± 0.9 to 39.5 ± 0.8 wt.%, when torrefaction temperature is increased, which is consistent with the general definition of the torrefaction process. In addition, enhancement factors (EFs) and fuel ratios (FRs) were calculated, which ranged from 1.00 to 1.02 and 0.16 to 0.23, respectively. Some anomalies were observed during the thermal analysis, which are assumed to be related to the composition of the selected MSW. This study therefore shows that torrefaction pretreatment can improve the physicochemical properties of raw MSW to a level comparable to coal, and could contribute to a better understanding of the conversion of MSW into a valuable, solid biofuel.
Ključne besede: biomass, municipal solid waste, torrefication, energy yield, thermogravimetric analysis
Objavljeno v DKUM: 10.05.2024; Ogledov: 93; Prenosov: 3
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,63 MB)
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3.
Subsolidus phase equilibria and the Li[sub]5Nd[sub]4FeO[sub]10 phase in the Li[sub]2O-Nd[sub]2O[sub]3-Fe[sub]2O[sub]3 system
Irena Ban, Mihael Drofenik, Danilo Suvorov, Darko Makovec, 2005, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: A survey of the subsolidus phase equilibria in the system Li2O-Nd2O3-Fe2O3 wasmade at subsolidus temperatures in the range 1000-1050 °C. A ternary phase was identified. The phase is centered on Li5Nd4FeO10, with a cubic lattice a =11.9494 A. The compound melts incongruently at 1105 °C. The magnetic susceptibility was measured in the temperature range 4-300 K. The compound is paramagnetic in the temperature range 150-300 K and follows the Curie-Weiss law. At about TN = 10 K, a long-range magnetic ordering is observed.
Ključne besede: lithium ferrites, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, magnetic properties, phase equilibrium
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 2467; Prenosov: 36
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