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Emergence of target waves in paced populations of cyclically competing species
Luo-Luo Jiang, Tao Zhou, Matjaž Perc, Xin Huang, Bing-Hong Wang, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We investigate the emergence of target waves in a cyclic predator-prey model incorporating a periodic current of the three competing species in a small area situated at the center of a square lattice. The periodic current acts as a pacemaker, trying to impose its rhythm on the overall spatiotemporal evolution of the three species. We show that the pacemaker is able to nucleate target waves that eventually spread across the whole population, whereby three routes leading to this phenomenon can be distinguished depending on the mobility of the three species and the oscillation period of the localized current. First, target waves can emerge due to the synchronization between the periodic current and oscillations of the density of the three species on the spatial grid. The second route is similar to the first, the difference being that the synchronization sets in only intermittently. Finally, the third route toward target waves is realized when the frequency of the pacemaker is much higher than that characterizing the oscillations of the overall density of the three species. By considering the mobility and frequency of the current as variable parameters, we thus provide insights into the mechanisms of pattern formation resulting from the interplay between local and global dynamics in systems governed by cyclically competing species.
Ključne besede: cyclical interactions, target waves, spatial games, diversity
Objavljeno: 30.06.2017; Ogledov: 809; Prenosov: 297
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,81 MB)
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Motor unit characteristics after targeted muscle reinnervation
Tamás Kapelner, Ning Jiang, Aleš Holobar, Ivan Vujaklija, Aidan Roche, Dario Farina, Oskar Aszmann, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) is a surgical procedure used to redirect nerves originally controlling muscles of the amputated limb into remaining muscles above the amputation, to treat phantom limb pain and facilitate prosthetic control. While this procedure effectively establishes robust prosthetic control, there is little knowledge on the behavior and characteristics of the reinnervated motor units. In this study we compared the m. pectoralis of five TMR patients to nine able-bodied controls with respect to motor unit action potential (MUAP) characteristics. We recorded and decomposed high-density surface EMG signals into individual spike trains of motor unit action potentials. In the TMR patients the MUAP surface area normalized to the electrode grid surface (0.25 ± 0.17 and 0.81 ± 0.46, p < 0.001) and the MUAP duration (10.92 ± 3.89 ms and 14.03 ± 3.91 ms, p < 0.01) were smaller for the TMR group than for the controls. The mean MUAP amplitude (0.19 ± 0.11 mV and 0.14 ± 0.06 mV, p = 0.07) was not significantly different between the two groups. Finally, we observed that MUAP surface representation in TMR generally overlapped, and the surface occupied by motor units corresponding to only one motor task was on average smaller than 12% of the electrode surface. These results suggest that smaller MUAP surface areas in TMR patients do not necessarily facilitate prosthetic control due to a high degree of overlap between these areas, and a neural information—based control could lead to improved performance. Based on the results we also infer that the size of the motor units after reinnervation is influenced by the size of the innervating motor neuron.
Ključne besede: target muscle reinnervation, motor unit, controlling muscles
Objavljeno: 19.06.2017; Ogledov: 610; Prenosov: 301
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,51 MB)
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New type of roundabout: dual one-lane roundabouts on two levels with right-hand turning bypasses - "target roundabout"
Tomaž Tollazzi, Goran Jovanović, Marko Renčelj, 2013, kratki znanstveni prispevek

Opis: The problems of low level traffic safety on multi-lane roundabouts have been resolved in various ways in different countries, usually by using alternative types of roundabouts that reduce the number of conflict points. Alternative types of roundabouts typically differ from "normal" or "standard" roundabouts in one or more design elements, as their implementation purposes could also be specific. Today, several different types of roundabouts are already in use ("mini", "double mini", "dumb-bell", those "with joint splitter islands" ("dog-bone"), those "with a spiralling circular carriageway" ("turbo"), those "with depressed lanes for right-hand turners" ("flower") etc.). This paper introduces a new type of roundabout, dual one-lane roundabouts on two levels with right-hand turning bypasses, namely the "target roundabout". This paper describes and analyses their design, traffic safety, and capacity characteristics, compared with the standard two-lane roundabouts.
Ključne besede: roundabouts, alternative types of roundabouts, turbo roundabout, target roundabout
Objavljeno: 05.06.2017; Ogledov: 590; Prenosov: 251
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,33 MB)
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Translating culture
Kristina Kočan, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The paper interrogates cultural specifics of contemporary African American poetry and exhibits translation problems when translating this poetic work. African American writers have always included much of their cultural heritage in their writing and this is immediately noticed by a translator. The cultural elements, such as African American cuisine, attire and style in general, as well as spiritual and religious practices, often play a significant role for African American poets who are proclaiming their identity. Moreover, the paper presents the translation problems that emerge when attempting to transfer such a specific, even exotic, source culture into a target culture, like Slovene. The goal is to show to what extent contemporary African American poetry can successfully be translated into the Slovene language and to highlight the parts that inevitably remain lost in the translation process.
Ključne besede: African American poetry, African American culture, translation, source culture, target culture
Objavljeno: 16.05.2017; Ogledov: 577; Prenosov: 107
.pdf Celotno besedilo (141,02 KB)
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Problems in translating musical elements in African American poetry after 1950
Kristina Kočan, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In most cases, African American poetry eschews traditional literary norms. Contemporary African American poets tend to ignore grammatical rules, use unusual typography on many occasions, include much of their cultural heritage in their poetry, and interweave musical elements into literary genres. The influence of such musical genres as jazz, blues, soul, and gospel, together with the dilemmas that occur for the translator, will be shown to great extent, since music, like black speech, is a major part of African American culture and literature. The translator will have to maintain the specific African American rhythm, blues adaptations and the improvisational language under the jazz impact. The paper presents the problems in translating post-1950 African American poetry into Slovene, and asks to what extent can one successfully transfer the musical elements within this poetry for the target culture? Inevitably, it will identify a share of elements that are lost in translation.
Ključne besede: American literature, American poetry, African American poetry, jazz, blues, soul, gospel, translation, source culture, target culture
Objavljeno: 16.05.2017; Ogledov: 514; Prenosov: 289
.pdf Celotno besedilo (189,49 KB)
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Noninvasive, accurate assessment of the behavior of representative populations of motor units in targeted reinnervated muscles
Dario Farina, Hubertus Rehbaum, Aleš Holobar, Ivan Vujaklija, Ning Jiang, Christian Hofer, Stefan Salminger, Hans-Willem van Vliet, Oskar Aszmann, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) redirects nerves that have lost their target, due to amputation, to remaining muscles in the region of the stump with the intent of establishing intuitive myosignals to control a complex prosthetic device. In order to directly recover the neural code underlying an attempted limb movement, in this paper, we present the decomposition of high-density surface electromyographic (EMG) signals detected from three TMR patients into the individual motor unit spike trains. The aim was to prove, for the first time, the feasibility of decoding the neural drive that would reach muscles of the missing limb in TMR patients, to show the accuracy of the decoding, and to demonstrate the representativeness of the pool of extracted motor units. Six to seven flexible EMG electrode grids of 64 electrodes each were mounted over the reinnervated muscles of each patient, resulting in up to 448 EMG signals. The subjects were asked to attempt elbow extension and flexion, hand open and close, wrist extension and flexion, wrist pronation and supination, of their missing limb. The EMG signals were decomposed using the Convolution Kernel Compensation technique and the decomposition accuracy was evaluated with a signal-based index of accuracy, called pulse-to-noise ratio (PNR). The results showed that the spike trains of 3 to 27 motor units could be identified for each task, with a sensitivity of the decomposition > 90%, as revealed by PNR. The motor unit discharge rates were within physiological values of normally innervated muscles. Moreover, the detected motor units showed a high degree of common drive so that the set of extracted units per task was representative of the behavior of the population of active units. The results open a path for a new generation of human-machine interfaces in which the control signals are extracted from noninvasive recordings and the obtained neural information is based directly on the spike trains of motor neurons.
Ključne besede: electromyographic, EMG, decomposition, high-density EMG, motor neuron, motor unit, myoelectronic control, neural drive to muscle, target muscle reinervation, TMR
Objavljeno: 25.05.2015; Ogledov: 854; Prenosov: 0

Razvoj ročaja hladilnika Gorenje po meri kupca
Marko Trojner, 2012, diplomsko delo

Opis: Kupec je in bo prioriteta, zato je potrebno sistematično pristopiti h kakovosti z vidika kupca. Predmet diplomskega dela je ročaj, ki nam zaradi nastalega podtlaka v hladilnikih in zamrzovalnih omarah omogoča lažje odpiranje vrat. Zaradi oblikovne togosti trenutnega ročaja RM 70 in slabše uveljavitve na trgu, je potrebno spremeniti pristop pri dizajnu in funkcionalnosti omenjenega ročaja. Ob uporabi akumuliranih informacij iz podjetja Gorenje in teoretičnih osnov, smo z metodo razvoja funkcij kakovosti prikazali začetno fazo razvoja novega polizdelka, ki je vodila do uspešne realizacije prototipa in osnove za vpeljavo polizdelka v lastno proizvodnjo podjetja Gorenje.
Ključne besede: razvoj izdelka, TQM, glas kupca, VOC, QFD, razvoj funkcij kakovosti, Kano model, hiša kakovosti, conjoint analiza, target costing, analiza trga, statistični testi, vzorec, management, Gorenje, brizganje, HZA, patent, življenjski ciklus izdelka.
Objavljeno: 20.11.2012; Ogledov: 1784; Prenosov: 88
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Alberto Milocco, 2012, doktorska disertacija

Opis: The construction of the nuclear fusion plant 'ITER' has started in 2009 at Cadarache, France. The ITER machine represents a milestone in the civil use of the nuclear fusion energy. The physics of ITER is based on the fusion reaction between deuteron and triton nuclei (d-t). The deuteron-deuteron reaction (d-d) is also interesting and is foreseen for the next generation of fusion reactors. The experimental activities carried out in the context of the ITER neutronics involve intense fields of neutrons produced with a linear accelerator for deuterons, a target containing tritium or deuterium and auxiliary structures, such as the detector system, cooling system, room walls, etc. Experimental data have been obtained from the FNG (Frascati Neutron Generator, Italy), FNS (Fast Neutron Source, Japan), OKTAVIAN (Osaka University, Japan) and IRMM (Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, EU). An independent method was developed at FNG for the simulation of the d-t neutron spectra at different angles. The FNG source routine models the Monte Carlo deuteron transport in solid tritiated targets as done in the well known SRIM code. The neutrons are generated according to the tabulated probability of the d-t reactions as for the DROSG2000 code. The FNG source routine is implemented into the MCNP distributions. The user is asked to define into the MCNP input file the deuteron energy (up to 10 MeV), the beam width and the target dimensions and composition. This source routine has been chosen as starter for the present thesis. Improvements and extensions were introduced. - The methodology, originally developed for the d-t neutron source, has been extended to d-d neutron sources. - Assuming the the SRIM code constitutes the reference calculation for the deuteron transport in matter, its implementation in the source routine has been cross-checked by extracting from the latter the same quantities as provided by the original code. II - In the present version of the source routines, the cross sections are internally generated from built in table based on modern evaluated nuclear data files instead of tables obtained from the DROSG200 code. - Since the model may be used up to 10 MeV deuteron energy, the relativistic kinematics has been implemented to avoid unnecessary approximations. - Simulations of the bare neutron source spectra and angular yields measurements have been carried out to validate the model. - New editions of the d-t and d-d source routine have been released for the latest versions of the MCNP codes and tested on LINUX and WINDOWS machines. The validation activities with the FNG and IRMM experimental data suggested a possible application of the source routine for the characterisation of neutron spectrometers in the MeV energy region. The source routine has been adopted to simulate integral benchmark experiments at FNG, FNS and OKTAVIAN. Brand new MCNP benchmark models have been developed for inclusion of all the available experimental information. It is shown that the d-t source routine is an accurate tool for the generation of the source eutrons. It also demonstrates to be useful for the evaluation of the neutron source term and associated uncertainties. The accuracy of the analyses is pursued to the point that the quality of the nuclear data employed in the simulation can be assessed. To this extent, the case of a new evaluation of the neutron interaction nuclear data for Manganese-55 is tested. A set of integral benchmark experiments has been used in the validation phase of the nuclear data. The computational models rely on the source routine, the object of the thesis. In conclusion, the source routine claims the inclusion of the major features responsible for the experimental resolution associated with the source term. The doctoral thesis explores its usage in the context of the experimental activities for ITER. The future exploitation of the source routine for the simulation of worldwide experiments might become an occasion to compare it with the source models available in the other laboratories
Ključne besede: deuteron-triton reactions, low-energy deuterons, neutron source model, Monte Carlo method, solid tritium target, solid deuterium target, fusion neutronics, benchmark experiments, diamond detectors.
Objavljeno: 07.03.2012; Ogledov: 3319; Prenosov: 100
.pdf Celotno besedilo (8,50 MB)

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