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Optimization of elastic systems using absolute nodal coordinate finite element formulation
Bojan Vohar, Marko Kegl, Zoran Ren, 2006, kratki znanstveni prispevek

Opis: An approach to a shape optimization of elastic dynamic multibody systems is presented. The proposed method combines an appropriate shape parameterization concept and recently introduced finite element type using absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF). In ANCF, slopes and displacements are used as the nodal coordinates instead of infinitesimal or finite rotations. This way one avoids interpolation of rotational coordinates and problems with finite rotations. ANCF elements are able to describe nonlinear deformation accurately; therefore, this method is very useful for simulations of lightweight multibody structures, where large deformations have to be taken into account. The optimization problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem and a gradient-based optimization procedure is implemented. The introduced optimization design variables are related to the cross-sectional parameters of the element and to the shape of the whole structure. The shape parameterization is based on the design element techniqueand a rational B ezier body is used as a design element. A body-like design element makes possible to unify the shape optimization of both simple beams and beam-like (skeletal) structures.
Ključne besede: mechanics, dynamics of material systems, multibody systems, elastic mechanical systems, manipulators, dynamically loaded beams, optimum shape design, absolute nodal coordinate formulation, design element technique, finite element method
Objavljeno: 31.05.2012; Ogledov: 1138; Prenosov: 69
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The dynamics of human gait
Matjaž Perc, 2005, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We analyse the dynamics of human gait with simple nonlinear time series analysis methods that are appropriate for undergraduate courses. We show that short continuous recordings of the human locomotory apparatus possess properties typical of deterministic chaotic systems. To facilitate interest and enable the reproduction of presented results, as well as to promote applications of nonlinear time series analysis to other experimental systems, we provide user-friendly programs for each implemented method. Thus, we provide new insights into the dynamics of human locomotion, and make an effort to ease the inclusion of nonlinear time series analysis methods into the curriculum at an early stage of the educational process.
Ključne besede: dynamic systems, chaotic systems, nonlinear dynamics, human gait, human locomotion
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1081; Prenosov: 21
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Encyclopedia of complexity and systems science
slovar, enciklopedija, leksikon, priročnik, atlas, zemljevid

Opis: Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of complexity theory together with the tools and measures for analyzing complex systems in all fields of science and engineering. The science and tools of complexity and systems science include theories of self-organization, complex systems, synergetics, dynamical systems, turbulence, catastrophes, instabilities, nonlinearity, stochastic processes, chaos, neural networks, cellular automata, adaptive systems, and genetic algorithms. Examples of near-term problems and major unknowns that can be approached through complexity and systems science include: The structure, history and future of the universe; the biological basis of consciousness; the integration of genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics as systems biology; human longevity limits; the limits of computing; sustainability of life on earth; predictability, dynamics and extent of earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, and other natural disasters; the dynamics of turbulent flows; lasers or fluids in physics, microprocessor design; macromolecular assembly in chemistry and biophysics; brain functions in cognitive neuroscience; climate change; ecosystem management; traffic management; and business cycles. All these seemingly quite different kinds of structure formation have a number of important features and underlying structures in common. These deep structural similarities can be exploited to transfer analytical methods and understanding from one field to another. This unique work will extend the influence of complexity and system science to a much wider audience than has been possible to date.
Ključne besede: cellular automata, complex networks, computational nanoscience, ecological complexity, ergodic theory, fractals, game theory, granular computing, graph theory, intelligent systems, perturbation theory, quantum information science, system dynamics, traffic management, chaos, climate modelling, complex systems, dynamical sistems, fuzzy theory systems, nonlinear systems, soft computing, stochastic processes, synergetics, self-organization, systems biology, systems science
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1495; Prenosov: 72
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The wavelet transform for BEM computational fluid dynamics
Jure Ravnik, Leopold Škerget, Matjaž Hriberšek, 2004, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: A wavelet matrix compression technique was used to solve systems of linear equations resulting from BEM applied to fluid dynamics. The governing equations were written in velocity-vorticity formulation and solutions of the resulting systems of equations were obtained with and without wavelet matrix compression. A modification of the Haar wavelet transform, which can transformvectors of any size, is proposed. The threshold, used for making fully populated matrices sparse, was written as a product of a user defined factor and the average value of absolute matrix elements values. Numerical tests were performed to assert, that the error caused by wavelet compression depends linearly on the factor , while the dependence of the error on the share of thresholded elements in the system matrix is highly non-linear. The results also showed that the increasing non-linearity (higher Ra and Re numbervalues) limits the extent of compression. On the other hand, higher meshdensity enables higher compression ratios.
Ključne besede: fluid mechanics, computational fluid dynamics, boundary element method, wavelet transform, linear systems of equations, velocity vorticity formulation, driven cavity, natural convection, system matrix compression
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1265; Prenosov: 55
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

Optimal kinematic design of a link-drive mechanism with prescribed velocity characteristics
Bojan Vohar, Karl Gotlih, Jože Flašker, 2003, kratki znanstveni prispevek

Opis: The paper presents an example of a link-drive mechanism for a deep drawing mechanical press. Because of its characteristics such a drive is much more appropriate than conventional crankshaft or eccentric drive. The existing design of the drive has proved unsatisfactory and does not meet all the demands and constraints, which are ideal for deep drawing process. Optimization of the drive is therefore necessary. The intention is to achieve the required velocity characteristics in a defined area of movement. Firstly, the drive is analyzed and a mathematical model is made and prepared for optimization procedure. The process is time-dependent, so it cannot be used directly in the optimization algorithm. Mathematical model is transformed intoa form suitable for the standard non-linear optimization procedure and then optimization is carried out. The method used is sequential quadratic programming. The final objective of the optimization process is to find such dimensions of link-drive members that the given requirements are satisfied in the best possible manner.
Ključne besede: mechanics, dynamics of mechanical systems, closed kinematic chains, mathematical modelling, non-linear optimization, drive optimization, drive dimensioning, kinematic analysis, link-drive mechanism, deep drawing press
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1361; Prenosov: 75
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Spatial coherence resonance in neuronal media with discrete local dynamics
Matjaž Perc, 2006, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We study effects of spatiotemporal additive noise on the spatial dynamics of excitable neuronal media that is locally modelled by a two-dimensional map. We focus on the ability of noise to enhance a particular spatial frequency of the media in a resonant manner. We show that there exists an optimal noise intensity for which the inherent spatial periodicity of the media is resonantly pronounced, thus marking the existence of spatial coherence resonance in the studied system. Additionally, results are discussed in view of their possible biological importance.
Ključne besede: physics, complex systems, dynamical systems, noise, spatial dynamics, chaos, chaotic systems, chaos control, resonance
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 1283; Prenosov: 63
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Transition from Gaussian to Levy distributions of stochastic payoff variations in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game
Matjaž Perc, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We study the impact of stochastic payoff variations with different distributions on the evolution of cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. We find that Gaussian-distributed payoff variations are most successful in promoting cooperation irrespective of the temptation to defect. In particular, the facilitative effect of noise on the evolution of cooperation decreases steadily as the frequency of rare events increases. Findings are explained via an analysis of local payoff ranking violations. The relevance of results for economics and sociology is discussed.
Ključne besede: stochastic systems, spatial resonance, stochastic payoff variations, nonlinear systems, noise, spatial dynamics, mathematical models, prisoner's dilemma
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 1117; Prenosov: 56
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Proximity to periodic windows in bifurcation diagrams as a gateway to coherence resonance in chaotic systems
Marko Gosak, Matjaž Perc, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We show that chaotic states situated in the proximity of periodic windows in bifurcation diagrams are eligible for the observation of coherence resonance. In particular, additive Gaussian noise of appropriate intensity can enhance the temporal order in such chaotic states in a resonant manner. Results obtained for the logistic map and the Lorenz equations suggest that the presented mechanism of coherence resonance is valid beyond particularities of individual systems. We attribute the findings to the increasing attraction of imminent periodic orbits and the ability of noise to anticipate their existence and use a modified wavelet analysis to support our arguments.
Ključne besede: chaotic systems, spatial resonance, coherence resonance, nonlinear systems, noise, spatial dynamics, mathematical models, bifurcation diagrame
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 1319; Prenosov: 55
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Thoughts out of noise
Matjaž Perc, 2006, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We study the effects of additive Gaussian noise on the behaviour of a simple spatially extended system, which is locally modelled by a nonlinear two-dimensional iterated map describing neuronal dynamics. In particular, we focus on the ability of noise to induce spatially ordered patterns, i. e. the so-called noise-induced pattern formation. For intermediate noise intensities, the spatially extended system exhibits ordered circular waves, thereby clearly manifesting the constructive role of random perturbations. The emergence of observed noise-induced patterns is explained with simple arguments that are obtained by analysing the typical spatial scale of patterns evoked by various diffusion coefficients. Since discrete-time systems are straightforward to implement and require modest computational capabilities, the present study describes one of the most fascinating and visually compelling examples of noise-induced self-organization in nonlinear systems in an accessible way for graduate or even advanced undergraduate students attending a nonlinear dynamics course.
Ključne besede: dynamic systems, chaotic systems, nonlinear dynamics, nonlinear systems, noise, nonlinear analyses
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 822; Prenosov: 18
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Visualizing the attraction of strange attractors
Matjaž Perc, 2005, strokovni članek

Opis: We describe a simple new method that provides instructive insights into the dynamics of chaotic time-continuous systems that yield strange attractors as solutions in the phase space. In particular, we show that the norm of the vector field component that is orthogonal to the trajectory is an excellent quantity for visualizing the attraction of strange attractors, thus promoting the understanding of their formation and overall structure. Furthermore, based on the existence of zero orthogonal field strengths in planes that form low-dimensional strange attractors, we also provide an innovative explanation for the origin of chaotic behaviour. For instructive purposes, we first apply the method to a simple limit cycle attractor, and then analyse two paradigmatic mathematical models for classical time-continuous chaos. To facilitate the use of our method in graduate as well as undergraduate courses, we also provide user-friendly programs in which the presented theory is implemented.
Ključne besede: dynamic systems, chaotic systems, nonlinear dynamics, attractors, strange attractors
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 887; Prenosov: 37
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