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Determination of shear bond strength between PEEK composites and veneering composites for the production of dental restorations
Anamarija Kuchler, Klementina Pušnik Črešnar, Iztok Švab, Tomaž Vuherer, Majda Žigon, Mihael Brunčko, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We studied the shear bond strength (SBS) of two PEEK composites (BioHPP, BioHPP plus) with three veneering composites: Visio.lign, SR Nexco and VITA VM LC, depending on the surface treatment: untreated, sandblasted with 110 μm Al2O3, sandblasted and cleaned ultrasonically in 80% ethanol, with or without adhesive Visio.link, with applied Visio.link and MKZ primer. For the BioHPP plus, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed a slightly lower glass transition temperature (Tg 150.4 ± 0.4 °C) and higher melting temperature (Tm 339.4 ± 0.6 °C) than those of BioHPP (Tg 151.3 ± 1.3 °C, Tm 338.7 ± 0.2 °C). The dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) revealed a slightly higher storage modulus of BioHPP (E’ 4.258 ± 0.093 GPa) than of BioHPP plus (E′ 4.193 ± 0.09 GPa). The roughness was the highest for the untreated BioHPP plus, and the lowest for the polished BioHPP. The highest hydrophobicity was achieved on the sandblasted BioHPP plus, whereas the highest hydrophilicity was found on the untreated BioHPP. The highest SBSs were determined for BioHPP and Visio.lign, adhesive Visio.link (26.31 ± 4.17 MPa) or MKZ primer (25.59 ± 3.17 MPa), with VITA VM LC, MKZ primer and Visio.link (25.51 ± 1.94 MPa), and ultrasonically cleaned, with Visio.link (26.28 ± 2.94 MPa). For BioHPP plus, the highest SBS was determined for a sandblasted surface, cleaned ultrasonically, with the SR Nexco and Visio.link (23.39 ± 2.80 MPa).
Ključne besede: BioHPP, CAD/CAM milling, BioHPP plus, pressing, veneering composites, roughness, wettability, shear bond strength
Objavljeno v DKUM: 05.04.2024; Ogledov: 121; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,92 MB)
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Experimental study of crack propagation through cladded 316L/S355 steel produced by the hot-roll bonding process
Edvard Bjelajac, Andrej Skumavc, Fidan Smaili, Gorazd Lojen, Jožef Predan, Tomaž Vuherer, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: A hot-rolled clad plate made of 316L stainless steel and S355 carbon steel was produced in a real industrial environment via GMAW welding, vacuuming, preheating to 1240 °C, and hot-roll bonding on four stand plate mills in nine passes with reduction rates between 20-6% per pass. The clad plates were solution annealed to achieve the usual delivery condition. Ultrasound testing showed a bonding rate of 100%. Metallographic examination revealed predominantly low concentrations of oxides at the interface. The tensile strength of the bond reached 155 MPa. The shear strength always satisfied the requirements of ASTM A264. It was observed that the concentration of oxide particles influenced the shear strength strongly. The lowest measured value was 172 MPa. Specimens notched in the base material and specimens notched in the clad layer were used in the Charpy impact test. In every case, only the notched layer broke, while the other layer was only bent. The absorbed energies were always higher than those of each material alone. Fracture mechanic tests gave similar results. The crack could not propagate from the notched layer into the other one, regardless of the material of the notched layer. Instead, delamination occurred. Due to delamination, K1c could not be determined, so KQ was given instead.
Ključne besede: clad plate, hot-roll bonding, shear strength, tensile strength, impact toughness, crack propagation
Objavljeno v DKUM: 28.03.2024; Ogledov: 125; Prenosov: 9
.pdf Celotno besedilo (18,79 MB)
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Fracture toughness of HSLA welds made on penstock material
Zdravko Praunseis, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The presence of different microstructures along the pre-crack fatigue front has a significant effect on the critical crack tip opening displacement (CTOD). This value is the relevant parameter for the safe servicing of welded structures (penstocks). In the case of specimens with the through-thickness notch partly in the weld metal, partly in the heat-affected zone, and partly in the base material, i.e., using the composite notched specimen, the fracture behaviour significantly depends on the portion of the ductile base material, the size, and the distribution of mismatching factor along the vicinity of the crack front.
Ključne besede: High Strength low Alloyed Steel, CTOD Fracture Toughness Testing, CTOD-R resistance Curve, Welded joints
Objavljeno v DKUM: 22.12.2023; Ogledov: 516; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,41 MB)
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Experimental and numerical analysis of fracture mechanics behavior of heterogeneous zones in S690QL1 grade high strength steel (HSS) welded joint
Damir Tomerlin, Dražan Kozak, Luka Ferlič, Nenad Gubeljak, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The heterogeneity of welded joints’ microstructure affects their mechanical properties, which can vary significantly in relation to specific weld zones. Given the dimensional limitations of the available test volumes of such material zones, the determination of mechanical properties presents a certain challenge. The paper investigates X welded joint of S690QL1 grade high strength steel (HSS), welded with slightly overmatching filler metal. The experimental work is focused on tensile testing to obtain stress-strain properties, as well as fracture mechanics testing. Considering the aforementioned limitations of the material test volume, tensile testing is carried out with mini tensile specimens (MTS), determining stress-strain curves for each characteristic weld zone. Fracture mechanical testing is carried out to determine the fracture toughness using the characteristic parameters. The experimental investigation is carried out using the single edge notch bend (SENB) specimens located in several characteristic welded joint zones: base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ), and weld metal (WM). Fractographic analysis provides deeper insight into crack behavior in relation to specific weld zones. The numerical simulations are carried out in order to describe the fracture behavior of SENB specimens. Damage initiation and evolution is simulated using the ductile damage material behavior. This paper demonstrates the possibility of experimental and numerical determination of fracture mechanics behavior of characteristic heterogeneous welded joint zones and their influence on crack path growth.
Ključne besede: heterogeneous welded joint, high strength steel, mechanical testing, damage, fracture, mechanical properties, finite element analysis
Objavljeno v DKUM: 30.11.2023; Ogledov: 347; Prenosov: 19
.pdf Celotno besedilo (11,25 MB)
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Application of normalization method to fracture toughness testing of welds with pronounced strength heterogeneity : doctoral disertation
Primož Štefane, 2022, doktorska disertacija

Opis: This doctoral dissertation presents the results of an extensive fracture testing programme of welds with pronounced strength heterogeneity. Purpose of this programme was to determine fracture toughness of heterogeneous welds that contain a midplane crack. Application of standardized fracture testing methods in heterogeneous welds might lead to overestimation or underestimation of fracture toughness and consequentially to inaccurate assessment of structural integrity. Reasons for that are variations in mechanical properties of different material regions in the weld which have a significant impact on development of deformation at the crack tip, and consequently on the crack driving force. Experimental procedures in scope of this research include fabrication of weld sample plates, that were welded with MAG process. The welds were fabricated using two different electrodes, one with higher and one with lower mechanical properties, with respect to base material S690QL in order to replicate extreme variations of mechanical properties in the weldment. Fabricated welds were then characterized in detail using metallography, three-point bend impact testing, indentation hardness measurements and tensile testing of flat miniature and round bar standard tensile specimens. Resistance of welds to stable tearing was investigated by fracture testing of square surface cracked SE(B) specimens containing a weld midplane notch. J-integral has been estimated from plastic work, using the normalization data reduction method that is included in standard ASTM E1820. The advantage of the normalization data reduction method is that no special equipment or complex testing method is needed to measure ductile crack growth during fracture testing. The ductile crack growth is determined directly from the load-displacement record, by applying appropriate calibration function and physical lengths of initial and final cracks that were measured post-mortem with the nine-point method. Several correction factors had to be calibrated in order to successfully implement the normalization data reduction method to fracture testing of welds with pronounced strength heterogeneity. For that reason, parametric finite element analyses were conducted for several weld configurations. Finite element models incorporated plane strain conditions in order to provide calibrated factors that comply with plane strain equations included in ASTM E1820. Additionally, crack tip constraint has been extensively analysed and correlated with the plastic deformation fields. This clarified altered deformation behaviour of modelled welds in comparison with the base material and corresponding effect on fracture toughness. Finally, calibrated factors were applied to computation of J-integral from data that were measured during fracture testing. J-R resistance curves were constructed for the tested heterogeneous welds and compared to the ones of the base material. This directly showed the effect of variations of mechanical properties on the weld fracture behaviour.
Ključne besede: weld, strength mismatch, fracture, normalization data reduction technique, plastic correction factors, test fixture, SE(B) specimen, J-R resistance curve
Objavljeno v DKUM: 10.01.2023; Ogledov: 689; Prenosov: 172
.pdf Celotno besedilo (20,57 MB)

Effectiveness of proactive password checker based on Markov models : doktorska disertacija
Viktor Taneski, 2019, doktorska disertacija

Opis: In this doctoral dissertation we focus on the most common method of authentication, the username-password combination. The reason for the frequent use of this authentication mechanism is its simplicity and low cost of implementation. Although passwords are so useful, they have many problems. Morris and Thompson, for the first time almost four decades ago, found that textual passwords were a weak security point of information systems. They have come to the conclusion that users are one of the biggest threats to information system’s security. Since then, we face these problems on a daily basis. Users do not perform the behaviours they need to be done in order to stay safe and secure, although they are aware of the security issues. Because this is a research area that security experts have been dealing with for a long time, in this dissertation we wanted to identify problems related to textual passwords and possible suggested solutions. For this purpose, we first performed a systematic literature review on textual passwords and their security. In doing so, we wanted to evaluate the current status of passwords in terms of their strength, ways of managing passwords, and whether users are still the “weakest link”. We found that one of the less researched solutions is proactive password checking. A proactive password checker could filter out the passwords that are easy-to-guess and only let through the passwords that are harder to guess. In order for a proactive password checking to be more effective, it is necessary for the checker to be able to check the probability that a certain password will be selected by the user. For this purpose, the better password checkers usually use certain tools to calculate password probability i.e., password strength. To find out which method is most suitable for calculating password strength, we have looked at similar solutions throughout history. We have found that Markov models are one of the most common methods used for password strength estimation, although we may encounter some problems when using them, such as sparsity and over-fitting. By reviewing similar solutions, we found that Markov models are mostly trained on only one dataset. This could limit the performance of the model in terms of correctly identifying bad or very strong passwords. As training datasets are important in the development of Markov models, it is clear that they will have some effect in the final assessment of the password’s strength. What we explore in our dissertation, is the importance of this effect on the final password strength estimation. Mainly, we focus on exploring the effect of different but similar datasets on password strength estimation. For the purposes of our study, we analysed publicly available sets of “common passwords” and processed them regarding the frequency distribution of the letters contained in these passwords. We built different Markov models based on these datasets and frequency distribution. This helped us determine if one Markov model was sufficient or if several models were needed to effectively estimate password strength for a wide range of passwords. The results showed statistical differences between the models. In more detail, we found that: - different Markov models (trained on different databases) showed statistically different results when tested on the same dataset, - more diverse datasets are needed to be able to calculate the strength of as many passwords as possible, since one “universal” model, trained on one “universal” dataset is less effective at classifying passwords in different categories (i.e., weak, medium, strong), - different Markov models of 1st and 2nd order, in most cases, give no statistically different outputs, - overall, Markov models can be used as a basis for constructing a more effective password checker that uses multiple different and specific Markov models, which could be more effective if we want to cover a wider range of passwords.
Ključne besede: passwords, password analysis, password security, password problems, password strength, systematic literature review, Markov models
Objavljeno v DKUM: 13.01.2020; Ogledov: 1555; Prenosov: 231
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,12 MB)

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