Opis: Opportunities for additional profit in retrofits depend very much on the existing plant structure, its parameters and energy system. Combined production of heat flow rate, power and chemical products can improve process efficiency. This paper presents an application of the nonlinear programming (NLP) optimization techniques, including increased chemical product output, heat integration and electricity cogeneration by changing amount flow ratios of raw material, and modifying the separation and reaction systems. The existing NLP model has been extended with basic chemical kinetics, including the effects of changing raw material flow rate ratios on product yield. A case studied methanol plant was optimized using the NLP model developed earlier by including an additional flow rate of hydrogen (H2), decreasing flowrate of high-pressure steam in crude methanol recycling, and increasing methanol production by 2.5%. The potential additional profit from the cogeneration and additional methanol production was estimated to be 2.51 MEUR/a. Ključne besede:chemical processes, methanol, simultaneous optimization, NLP, cogeneration, flow rate ratios Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1999; Prenosov: 105 Povezava na celotno besedilo

Opis: Heat and power integration can reduce fuel usage, CO2 and SO2 emissions and, thereby, pollution. In the simultaneous heat and power integration approach and including additional production, the optimization problem is formulated using a simplified process superstructure. Nonlinear programming (NLP) contains equations which enable structural heat and power integration and parametric optimization. In the present work, the NLP model is formulated as an optimum energy target of process integration and electricity generation using a gas turbine with a separator. The reactor acts as a combustion chamber of the gas turbine plant, producing high temperature. The simultaneous NLP approach can account for capital cost, integration of combined heat and power, process modification, and additional production trade-offs accurately, and can thus yield a better solution. It gives better results than non-simultaneous methods. The NLP model does not guarantee a global cost optimum, but it does lead to good, perhaps near optimum designs. This approach is illustrated by an existing, complex methanol production process. The objective function generates a possible increase in annual profit of 1.7 M EUR/a. Ključne besede:chemical processes, methanol, simultaneous optimization, NLP, cogeneration, gas turbine Objavljeno v DKUM: 31.05.2012; Ogledov: 2156; Prenosov: 91 Povezava na celotno besedilo

Opis: The opportunities for additional profit depend very much on the existing plant and energy system. Heat and power integration can reduce fuel usage in chemical processes. Nonlinear programming contains equations which enable structural and parametric optimization. The NLP model is formulated using an optimum energy target of process integration and electricity generation using a gas turbine with separator. The reactor acts as a combustion chamber of the gas turbine plant, producing a lot of energy. The simultaneous NLP approach can account for capital cost, integration of combined heat and power, process modification and additional production of trade-offs, and can thus yield a better solution. The combined production of electricity, heat and chemical products can lead to better process efficiency. The methanol plant was optimized using a mathematical nonlinear programming model by including an additional flowrate of hydrogen in crude methanol recycle and increasing the methanol production by 2,5%. The electricity can be generated in methanol recycle using a gas turbine. The total additional profit is 2,5 MEUR/a. Ključne besede:chemical engineering, methanol production, simultaneous process optimization, nonlinear programming, cogeneration, product increase Objavljeno v DKUM: 30.05.2012; Ogledov: 2513; Prenosov: 46 Povezava na celotno besedilo