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Resolving intellectual property disputes
Hamed Alavi, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Within recent decades, increasing the complexity of international trade has resulted in changing many dimensions of doing business with other nations and relevant problems to it. Rising the importance of intellectual property rights as intangible assets of companies is considered among most important characters of modern business process which applies to multinational enterprises and other forms of companies who intend to enter the global market place equally. Benefiting from global marketplace and at the same time protecting IPRs is a difficult goal to achieve due to intangible and diverse nature of such rights which results. In practice of international trade, there is high probability for companies to face with IPR related disputes. Therefore, choice of proper IP Dispute Resolution mechanism is an important step in designing overall IP strategy of the firm as an improper IP dispute resolution method can impose high financial costs as well as affecting reputation of the firm. Current paper tries to answer to the question of what is the most suitable dispute resolution method for IP related disputes. And in order to achieve this objective, paper explores different types of IP disputes, different approaches for resolving IP disputes, factors affecting the choice of method for resolving IP disputes and finally, it will analyse application of dispute resolution mechanisms in different types of IP related disputes.
Ključne besede: intellectual property rights, dispute resolution, international trade, litigation, alternative dispute resolution
Objavljeno v DKUM: 02.08.2018; Ogledov: 926; Prenosov: 74
.pdf Celotno besedilo (234,04 KB)
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High resolution melting curve analysis for high-throughput SNP genotyping in IL23R gene and association of IL23R with Slovenian inflammatory bowel diseases patients
Mitja Mitrovič, Uroš Potočnik, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis is important tool in the studies of genetic factors associated with complex diseases and with genetically influenced response to drug therapy (pharmacogenetics). Recently, a new generation of generic dsDNA binding dyes (LCGreen$^{TM}$) contributed to the development of fast and low-cost method for SNP detection and/or genotyping based on high resolution melting (HRM) analysis. The aim of our study was to develop HRM assay for IL23R gene (rs7517847) and to perform association study in Slovenian inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) patients. We genotyped 345 Slovenian healthy controls and 295 IBD patients including 159 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 136 with ulcerative colitis (UC) for rs7517847 polymorphism in IL23R gene using standard RFLP and optimized HRM methods. In this study, we showed, that HRM is a simple, fast and reliable method for genotyping of clinical samples where homozygotes (GG and TT) were determined by Tm calling method and difference between homozygotes and heterozygotes was determined by different melting curve shape using gene scanning method. With combination of results from Tm calling and gene scanning methods, we achieved 98,6% concordance between PCR-RFLP and PCRHRM results, based on the analysis of 640 samples. We found statistically significant association of IL23R polymorphism with Slovenian Crohn's disease patients when comparing genotype and allele frequencies between CD patients and controls. Allele frequency of minor allele G was 0,46 in controls and was reduced to 0,33 in CD patients (p < 0,001, OR = 0,588). The frequency of T/T genotype carriers was higher in CD patients (50,3%) than in controls (26,7%, p = 0,002, OR = 2,558). We found weak association between IL23R polymorphism and Slovenian UC patients. Carriers of T/T genotype have higher risk for UC (p = 0,035, OR = 1,599). These results suggest IL23R plays important role in CD and UC development in Slovenian patients.
Ključne besede: SNP genotyping, high resolution melting, DNA dyes, inflammatory bowel diseases, LC Green Plus
Objavljeno v DKUM: 18.08.2017; Ogledov: 1629; Prenosov: 97
.pdf Celotno besedilo (232,19 KB)
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High-resolution melting curve analysis for high-throughput genotyping of NOD2/CARD15 mutations and distribution of these mutations in Slovenian inflammatory bowel diseases patients
Mitja Mitrovič, Uroš Potočnik, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are usually classified into Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). NOD2/CARD15 was the first identified CD-susceptibility gene and was confirmed as the most potent disease gene in CD pathogenesis. Three NOD2/CARD15 variants, namely two missense polymorphisms R702W (rs2066844) and G908R (rs2066845), and a frame shift polymorphism L1007fs (rs2066847), were associated with CD in Caucasian populations. High resolution melting analysis (HRMA) with saturation LCGreen dyes was previously reported as a simple, inexpensive, accurate and sensitive method for genotyping and/or scanning of rare variants. For this reasons we used qPCR-HRMA for genotyping NOD2/CARD15 variants in 588 Slovenian IBD patients and 256 healthy controls. PCR-RFLP was used as a reference method for genotyping of clinical samples. The optimization of an HRM experiment required careful design and adjustment of main parameters, such as primer concentration, MgCl_{2} concentration, probe design and template DNA concentration. Different HRMA approaches were tested and used to develop a reliable and low-cost SNP genotyping assays for polymorphisms in NOD2/CARD15 gene. Direct HRMA was the fastest and cheapest HRMA approach for L1007fs and R702W polymorphisms, yet for G908R polymorphism sufficient reliability was achieved after introduction of unlabeled probe. In association analysis, we found statistically significant association of L1007fs (p =0.001, OR=3.011, CI95%=1.494-6.071) and G908R (p=2.62 * 10^{-4}, OR=14.117, CI95%= 1.884-105.799) polymorphisms with CD patients. At least one of NOD2/CARD15 polymorphisms was found in 78/354 (22.03% (12.69%) in UC patients and in 26/256 (10.15%) in healthy controls. We have successfully implemented NOD2/CARD15 HRMA assays, which may contribute to the development of genetic profiles for risk prediction of developing CD and for differential diagnosis of CD vs. UC.
Ključne besede: high-resolution melting analysis, NOD2/CARD15, inflammatory bowel diseases
Objavljeno v DKUM: 14.06.2017; Ogledov: 1183; Prenosov: 328
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,72 MB)
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Preparation of enantiomers using high pressure technologies
Paul Thorey, 2010, doktorska disertacija

Opis: The study of two different methods of obtaining chiral alcohols is proposed herein. The requirement of the relatively new paradigm of green chemistry associated with clean technologies such as biocatalysis or non-conventional solvents, dense gases, was focused at. Indeed, the two methods of production of chiral alcohols were: - the conversion of acetophenone into (R)-1-phenylethanol in dense gases catalysed by Lactobacillus brevis alcohol dehydrogenase and its coenzyme, NADP/H; - the resolution of (±)-trans-1,2-cyclohexanediol by cocrystal formation with tartaric acid followed by supercritical extraction. In both cases high enantiopurities were achieved (ee>99%).
Ključne besede: High-pressure technologies, enantiomers, green chemistry, R-1-phenylethanol, Lactobacillus brevis, alcohol dehydrogenase, NADP, liquid propane, enzyme deactivation, resolution, trans-1, 2-cyclohexanediol, tartaric acid, cocrystal, supercritical carbon dioxide, extraction, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry
Objavljeno v DKUM: 02.02.2011; Ogledov: 2793; Prenosov: 130
.pdf Celotno besedilo (6,25 MB)

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