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Do women see things differently than men do?
Norbert Jaušovec, Ksenija Jaušovec, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of gender on brain activity. Thirty male and 30 female respondents solved simple auditory and visual tasks while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Also recorded was the percentage of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (%StO2) in the respondents' frontal brain areas with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The attended task condition was based on the oddball paradigm. Respondents had to mentally count infrequent target stimuli - tones or shapes. In the unattended condition they just listened to tones or viewed different shapes. Gender related differences in EEG activity were only observed in the amplitudes of the early evoked gamma response and the P3 component. Women displayed higher amplitudes than men. A second finding was that these differences were more pronounced for the visual than for the auditory stimuli. No gender related differences were observed in the ERP latencies, as well as in the amplitudes of the P1-N1 complex, and the induced gamma response. The NIRS data showed that males in their frontal brain areas displayed a higher percentage of StO2 than did females; and males also showed a higher increase in %StO2 during task performance as compared with the resting condition. Taken all together the results suggest that the females' visual event-categorization process is more efficient than in males. The data are discussed in the theoretical framework of the evolutionary theory of human spatial sex differences.
Ključne besede: psychology, functional neuroimaging, brain activities, neuropsychology, gender, gender differences
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 912; Prenosov: 48
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

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Reasoning and self-awareness from adolescence to middle age : organization and development as a function of education
Andreas Demetriou, Karin Bakračevič Vukman, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This study involved four age groups: 13-15-, 23-25-, 33-35-, and 43-45-yr-olds. All adult groups involved persons with university education andpersons with low education. Participants (1) solved tasks addressed to spatial, propositional, and social reasoning, (2) evaluated their own performance and the difficulty of the tasks, and (3) answered an inventory probing their self-concept for these reasoning domains and for self-awareness and self-regulation. Structural modeling revealed that performance, self-evaluation, and self-representation are systematically interrelated. Performance in spatial and propositional reasoning stabilized in early adulthood, whereas in social reasoning and self-evaluation, performance improved throughout the age span studied. Educated persons performed better and rated themselves accordingly across all domains. The implications of these findings for the general theory of intelligence and cognitive developmentafter adolescence are discussed. The functional shift model is proposed to account for changes in the relative power of different abilities with increasing age.
Ključne besede: education, developmental psychology, cognitive processes, self-awareness, reasoning
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 829; Prenosov: 48
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

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Gender related differences in visual and auditory processing of verbal and figural tasks
Norbert Jaušovec, Ksenija Jaušovec, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The aim of the present study was to investigate gender related differences in brain activity for tasks of verbal and figural content presented in the visual and auditory modality. Thirty male and 30 female respondents solved four tasks while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Also recorded was the percentage of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (%StO2) in the respondents' frontal brain areas with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The main findings of the study can be summarized as follows. (1) Most pronounced differences between males and females were observed for the factor modality-visual/auditory. (2) Gender related differences in neuroelectric brain responses could be observed during the solution of auditory and visual tasks; however, on the behavioral level only for the visual tasks did females display shorter reaction times than males. The ERP amplitudes of the early evoked gamma response, P1, and P3 were higher in females than males, whereas the N4 amplitude was higher in males than females. The differences were more noticeable in the visual modality. The NIRS showed a more bilateral involvement of the frontal brain areas in females as compared with a more left hemispheric frontal activity in males. In the task conditions an increase in right hemispheric activity in females was observed; however, this increase was less pronounced in the visual than the auditory domain, indicating a more lateralized processing of visual stimuli in females. Taken all together the results suggest that the females' visual event-categorization process is more efficient than in males.
Ključne besede: psychology, neuropsychology, brain activities, visual processing, auditory processing, gender, gender differences
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 1115; Prenosov: 55
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

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Spatial rotation and recognizing emotions : gender related differences in brain activity
Norbert Jaušovec, Ksenija Jaušovec, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity - assessed with EEG methodology - while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2 alpha band. Males and females displayed an inverse IQ-activation relationship in just that domain in which they usually perform better: females in the emotional intelligence domain, and males in the visuospatial ability domain. A similar pattern of brain activity could also be observed for the male/female respondents with different levels of performance and emotional IQ. It was suggested that high ability representatives of both genders to some extent compensate for their inferior problem solving skills (males in emotional tasks and females in spatial rotation tasks) by increasing their level of attention.
Ključne besede: psychology, cognitive processes, emotional intelligence, EEG activities, problem complexity, brain, memory, spatial rotation, gender, event-related desynchronization
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 1246; Prenosov: 38
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

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The psychometric properties of the Slovenian translation of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity : a study among Roman Catholic undergraduate students
Sergej Flere, Rudi Klanjšek, Leslie John Francis, Mandy Robbins, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In order to contribute to a growing international research programme concerned with the correlations, antecedents and consequences of individual differences in attitude toward religion, the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity was translated into Slovenian. Data provided by a sample of 808 undergraduate students affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church supported the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of this instrument and commended it for further use in studies conducted in Slovenia.
Ključne besede: psychology, religion, measuring, attitudes, Slovenia, students
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 804; Prenosov: 48
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

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