Effect of particle roundness and morphology on the shear failure mechanism of granular soil under strip footingBabak Karimi Ghalehjough
, Suat Akbulut
, Semet Çelik
, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: This study investigates the effect of particles roundness and morphology on the shear failure mechanism of soil. A strip footing was modeled under laboratory conditions. Calcareous soil was tested with three roundness classes: angular, rounded and well-rounded shapes with sizes of 0.30 mm to 4.75 mm. These were divided into six different groups at three relative densities of 30%, 50% and 70%. A series of photographs was taken during the tests and analyzed using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method to understand the soil-deformation mechanism. The results showed that increasing the sample sizes increased the affected area of the soil. At the same time, increasing the relative density caused a punching failure mechanism that went towards the general failure. The shear failure mechanism of the soil changed from general toward punching shear failure with increasing particle roundness. This effect was larger with the smaller materials. Underneath the affected layers of soil, the angular samples were deeper than the rounded and well-rounded samples. The affected depth in the angular soil was approximately 1.5B in the smallest size group. This was more than 3B and near 4B in the largest size group. Both the sides and the underlying soil layers should be considered on angular soils. The area under the footing becomes more important than the side parts after increasing the roundness of the particles.
Ključne besede: particle roundness, morphology of particles, shear failure mechanism, strip footing, PIV method, ultimate bearing capacity
Objavljeno v DKUM: 11.10.2018; Ogledov: 1060; Prenosov: 392
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The influence of the morphology of iron powder particles on their compaction in an automatic dieBorivoj Šuštaršič
, Matjaž Godec
, Črtomir Donik
, Irena Paulin
, Srečko Glodež
, Marko Šori
, Milan Ratej
, Nada Javornik
, 2015, strokovni članek
Opis: Fe- and steel-based powder metallurgy (P/M) products, such as steel gears, spurs, locking mechanisms, porous filters, sliding bearings and bushes, as well as other machine parts and structural elements, are mainly produced with the so-called conventional sintering technology. It is the most efficient technology for the mass production of small, complex, functional and structural parts. Therefore, it is the most convenient and popular among all of the P/M technologies. The most important end-user of sintered parts is the automotive industry. However, small, complex, sintered parts can also be frequently used in the furniture and household industries, precise mechanics, articles for recreation and sports. A fine, iron-based powder mixture or prealloyed powder is first automatically uniaxial-die compacted (ADC) into the final shape of the product with a mechanical or hydraulic press and then sintered in a protective atmosphere at approximately 1100 °C. The metal powder mixture must have the appropriate engineering properties given by the chemistry and particle morphology, enabling a fast and reliable die-compaction process. The most important are a high tap density, a good powder flowability and a low compressibility. All this gives the green compacts an appropriate final shape with a smooth surface, a relatively high and uniform green density, as well as a green strength without internal flaws and cracks. In the case of very small two-or-more-heights products, for example, spur gears with a low module, it is very difficult to obtain a uniform green density at acceptable compaction pressures. Often small cracks are formed at height crossings and big differences in the green density appear in smaller or thinner regions. In the frame of our investigation we analysed the influence of the selected prealloyed commercial iron powder’s morphology and its technological properties on automatic die compaction, as well as the sintering process in the case of small two-level sintered gear dimensions of 5/40–7/10×7mm with module m = 0.5. The original iron powder was sieved and the finest powder particle fraction (< 45 µm) was compared with the original powder mixture considering ADC and sintering process. It was found that the selection of the finer powder mixture could not contribute to the improvement in the overall ADC process, as well as a better green compact. In the present paper the results of our investigations are presented and the reasons why a finer powder mixture cannot contribute much to an improvement of the conventional sintering process.
Ključne besede: Fe-based alloy powders, particles, morphology, microstructure, automatic die compaction, sintering
Objavljeno v DKUM: 27.03.2017; Ogledov: 933; Prenosov: 323
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