THE USE OF MUSIC, SONGS AND SONG LYRICS IN AN ESL CLASSROOM AND THEIR MOTIVATIONAL IMPACT ON THE LEARNERSJaka Cafuta
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: This MA paper explores different ways of using music, songs and song lyrics in an ESL classroom, different experience of teachers and other researchers with this area, and the effects music and songs have on students and class work. The theoretical section includes scientific findings, experience and reports of researchers and teachers, relating to a wide spectrum of using music and songs for teaching English in many different ways. It also explores the area of motivation, its position in the learning process and the correlation between motivation and the use of music and songs in the classroom.
The empirical section presents a more practical follow-up to the theoretical section, and is roughly divided into four “sub-sections”: the first sub-section was designed to research the opinions and experience of English language teachers from Maribor, Celje and Velenje (and their immediate surroundings) about using music and songs in an ESL classroom. There were 89 elementary school teachers included in the survey, which was also the instrument for data collection in this sub-section. The data shows that most of the teachers use music and songs quite often in their classrooms and have a predominantly positive experience with it. Most teachers strongly agree that music and songs enrich the lesson and activate the students. However, there are some who believe that music and songs take up too much time in the already over-stuffed schedule. Teachers use different sources to find their music and songs and also present these songs in different ways. Nevertheless, it is very uncommon for them to sing and play the songs to the students themselves- they usually use a cd or the internet. Most teachers use children’s songs and also believe that using songs is most effective with younger learners in the 1st triad. The majority of teachers also believe that music has the most powerful effect on student motivation and participation, however, they don’t see music and songs as good alternatives for standard language exercises and drills. Overall, most believe that an occasional, but regular use of music could change classroom practice in a very positive way (which is why many of them are already (more or less) including it into their English lessons).
The second sub-section refers to a case-study implemented for researching the effect of using music and songs for teaching English on student learning achievement. The data was collected with the help of specially designed tests of knowledge (pre-tests and post-tests) and the case-study itself, in which 3 English lessons with music and songs were carried out in two groups of students from grade 9 (control group (9 students) and experimental group (8 students)) from one of the elementary school in Maribor. The results show that the two groups had different initial knowledge before the experiment even began- the experimental group scored higher on the pre-test of the 2nd conditional structure. Even though there were no other statistically significant differences between the two groups, the effect size measurement has shown that music has a medium to strong effect on student learning achievement. However, there was a statistically-significant difference in scores on the 1st conditional tests in the experimental group relating to progress within the group. I believe that same progress would have been seen in with the 2nd conditional structure too, but the students had already “aced” the pre-test, so it was almost impossible to achieve a statistically significant difference with the post-test.
The third sub-section deals with researching the effects that using music and songs in the classroom has on student engagement, student motivation and classroom atmosphere. The data here was gathered with the help of a specially designed observational checklist with a chronological scale for observing classes/lessons. The results here were unanimous and show that all three categories under study were rated much high
Ključne besede: ESL, songs, music, learning/teaching a language, motivation
Objavljeno: 20.02.2017; Ogledov: 1379; Prenosov: 165
Celotno besedilo (909,09 KB)
Testing pronunciation varieties of English in primary school through pictorial and textual inputMejade Tomažič
, 2016, diplomsko delo
Opis: We are surrounded with different varieties of English language. We listen to English music or radio shows, watch English movies and shows and watch English videos on the internet. The most common varieties that we encounter are British English and American English, which have distinctive differences in stress and pronunciation. Because we encounter both varieties daily, we have found it interesting to see which one prevails in our primary schools. The British English variety is primarily taught in school and the American variety is all around us and is thus more likely to be acquired. Children acquire a foreign language very easily if they are in contact with it on a regular basis. This is as nowadays, as we all hear English lyrics on the radio or hear English conversations on TV.
The thesis focuses on the factors that might influence the choice of the English variety. It explores if the input, whether it is pictorial with pictures or textual with words, influences the choice of variety. It also presents connections between the pronunciation of more frequent and less frequent words with choice of variety, the influence of the pupils’ backgrounds, and way of learning English.
Ključne besede: word recognition, working and long-term memory, second language, language acquisition, language learning, British and American English pronunciation.
Objavljeno: 15.11.2016; Ogledov: 1071; Prenosov: 47
Celotno besedilo (1,13 MB)
MEDITATION IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASSROOMTjaša Pegan
, 2016, diplomsko delo
Opis: The practical action research study in this diploma thesis, Meditation in the English Language Classroom, was performed as a mini-experiment which was initially set up to explore meditation and assess its potential and use in education. Regarding English as a foreign language, language learning combined visual and auditory information, and it was based on visual and verbal memory. One of the objectives in the theoretical part was to find a ‘universal formula’ which could help bring meditation closer to a classroom setting. Among available techniques, we chose mindfulness meditation for its simplicity. In addition to having this exercise included in the lesson, the participants received the element of visualisation, which is often found in meditation traditions. Guided visualisation or the so called guided mental imagery was presented as a vocabulary learning strategy in the form of multisensory interactive story including multiple intelligences and mindfulness aspects – the pupils had to pay attention to what the teacher was saying. They were supposed to self-generate the pictures in their minds to repeat new vocabulary items or simply listen to the story with their eyes closed. The main purpose of using mindfulness was to create a more harmonious classroom atmosphere and better concentration by helping the participants become more centred by directing their attention inwardly. The main purpose of using visualisation was to remember words by giving them a mental image. We presented lesson plans from the study performed by two volunteering teachers. In total, 8 classes with 114 pupils were included in this mini research. Results are not so clear-cut and promising, mainly due to limitations. Teachers need more training, better school organisation and curriculum for the practices to be seriously implemented in education.
Ključne besede: meditation, mindfulness, contemplative secular education, humanistic approach to English language teaching and learning, vocabulary learning strategies, visualisation/mental imagery
Objavljeno: 21.10.2016; Ogledov: 1414; Prenosov: 143
Celotno besedilo (3,94 MB)
The Influence of the Early Learning of English on the Acquisition of English in Slovene Primary SchoolsNataša Kosajnč
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: The results of the Slovenian National Assessment of Knowledge in English i.e. NAK (Nacionalno preverjanje znanja iz angleščine za 6. in 9. razred - NPZ) in the sixth class and the ninth class show different results among schools in Slovenia. The data suggest that there are several factors that help pupils achieve good results in the NAK, especially practice and early English language learning and early language exposure.
The purpose of the study was to determine the English language skills of the pupils in Slovenian schools who had organized, systematic English language learning in the first triad of the primary school in comparison to the English language skills of the pupils who did not have organized, systematic English language learning in the first triad of the primary school. The purpose was also to determine the impact of systematic English language teaching in the first triad of primary school on language knowledge of the fourth class pupils. A study was designed which was based on testing the English language skills on a sample of fourth class pupils, selected according to the form of English language learning in the first triad of primary school in Slovenia. The study was conducted in the 2015/2016 school year on a sample of 110 fourth class pupils divided into three groups. The experimental group consisted of 42 pupils who had organized, systematic early learning of English during the first triad. The first control group consisted of 17 pupils who did not have any kind of organized, systematic early learning of English in the first triad. The second control group consisted of 51 pupils who learned English as an extracurricular activity or took English language courses. All groups of pupils completed a questionnaire and took part in the language skills testing on different linguistic levels: lexical, grammatical and discourse levels. A language test was designed for this purpose. The results showed that the three groups were homogenous. Test results were compared within the three groups of pupils. The obtained data was also compared to the general, publicly available data of national sixth class testing (NAK).
The analysis showed statistically significant differences in the test results of the three groups of pupils. Pupils who had organized, systematic early learning of English in the first triad achieved better results overall. A more detailed analysis showed that the pupils who had early learning of English in the first triad were more successful in tasks focusing on grammar and discourse. Surprisingly, the pupils who did not experience the organized, systematic early learning of English in the first triad were more successful in lexical tasks.
Ključne besede: foreign language, early English language learning, research, language test, primary school
Objavljeno: 05.10.2016; Ogledov: 960; Prenosov: 91
Celotno besedilo (1,02 MB)
PERCEPTION AND PRODUCTION IN EARLY FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING THROUGH SPOKEN AND WRITTEN WORDSuzana Miljević
, 2016, diplomsko delo
Opis: Implementation of early foreign language learning in the national curriculum for primary education has been a significant and a popular issue among the language researchers, all the professionals involved in the process of early education and parents. The modern theories and research propose early foreign language learning in primary schools as highly beneficial, crucial and necessary in a sense of spontaneous language acquisition through simple and non-demanding tasks, which are primarily based on auditory perception and physical response as production. In contrast to popular approaches in early foreign language teaching, based on the relation between the tasks’ difficulties and language acquisition, this thesis explores the connection and defines the importance of the attention span in relation to successful language acquisition, in comparison to the importance of the task difficulty. The research was carried out at the Primary School Ljubečna among the second and third grade students, who took part in the listening and reading comprehension examination, which was structured for attention observation and measurement purposes. Each group of the second and the third grade students took a listening and a reading comprehension test. The results and observations of the testing were shown to lead to accurate determinations of the attention influence on early language acquisition. This indicates that there is a possibility that the early reading and writing are not adverse to the process of early foreign language learning and foremost that difficulty of tasks is not in a directly proportional relation to perception and production, namely less demanding tasks are not necessarily completed more successfully than tasks that are more complex.
Ključne besede: KEY WORDS: early learning, early teaching, foreign language, language acquisition, perception, production, attention, attention span, difficulty of tasks, attention observation, attention measurement
Objavljeno: 08.09.2016; Ogledov: 862; Prenosov: 43
Celotno besedilo (1,92 MB)
INDIVIDUALIZED LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE: METHODS AND PROBLEMS RELATED TO SUCH LEARNINGDoroteja Hadner
, 2016, diplomsko delo
Opis: The thesis presents a topic that is nowadays very current in the field of education, even though it takes places outside of school, and that is individualized learning a foreign language. More and more children need additional help with acquisition and understanding of a foreign language and for this reason, the purpose of this thesis was to present individualized learning, to explore different approaches and methods of language teaching, which have evolved over the years and have been the subject of research and opinions of various authors. For learners, certain elements presented a big obstacle in learning a foreign language, which is why the thesis also presents different techniques of learning vocabulary and grammar according to various authors, which are also compared with our personal experiences, gained from individualized learning. The empirical part was based on a research, where we compared English examination tests of two learners, who attended individualized learning through all four years of secondary school. In each year, we made an analysis of both tests individually, compared learners’ mistakes and progress, and gave solutions to improve learners’ knowledge and understanding of a foreign language. Furthermore, we compared our personal experiences based on individualized learning with experiences and suggestions of other authors in connection with the use of different methods and approaches, and with learning vocabulary and grammar. Through theory and research, where the descriptive and comparative research method was used, we discovered that individualized learning was and will remain a very useful and effective tool in learning a foreign language, which gave learners excellent results at school, enriched their experience with the foreign language and most importantly, it raised their self-confidence in using a foreign language.
Ključne besede: individualized learning, learners, approaches, methods, grammar, vocabulary
Objavljeno: 02.09.2016; Ogledov: 698; Prenosov: 44
Celotno besedilo (9,81 MB)
Teaching English as an Additional Language to Very Young Learners with the Hippo and Friends CourseMaja Rupnik
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: The main subject of the master's thesis research is teaching English as an additional (foreign) language in early childhood (pre-school period) to learners between 3 and 6 years of age with the Hippo and Friends (Starter, 1, and 2) course, written by Selby and McKnight and released by University of Cambridge in 2006. After presenting theoretical principles of teaching and learning an additional (foreign) language at an early age together with the presentation of the Hippo and Friends course, the empirical part of the thesis analyses and evaluates the course’s teaching outcomes. These were acquired between October 2015 and March 2016 by carrying out a 3-leveled Hippo and Friends English language course for very young learners. 5 courses (2 groups at the H&F Starter level, 2 groups at the H&F 1 level and 1 group at the H&F 2 level) were attended by a total number of 45 pre-school children. The courses took place on five locations in North-Eastern Slovenia (Oplotnica, Kebelj, Slovenska Bistrica, Poljčane and Pragersko); the teacher taught them in a form of a student work at the ‘Bla Bla’ language school. In addition to general evaluation of the Hippo and Friends course aims achievement and self-evaluation of teaching, particular focus is placed on the analysis and evaluation of learners’ emotional responses to the first contact with English, their linguistic progress and instructional factors that affected it the most. The Hippo and Friends course has made the majority of very young learners’ first contact with English enjoyable and fun. In addition to developing the very basic listening, speaking and discourse skills, the majority of very young learners have exceeded the suggested target vocabulary by the end of the course. Throughout the course, the majority of very young learners has more successfully acquired and, at the end of it, more correctly orally produced the target vocabulary items (TVI) presented in lessons with a lower number of newly presented TVI, the TVI taught with a higher practising rate, the TVI of thematic units the learners enjoyed the most and the TVI taught through songs and stories.
Ključne besede: very young learners, teaching English, learning English, Hippo and Friends course
Objavljeno: 11.08.2016; Ogledov: 921; Prenosov: 85
Celotno besedilo (4,59 MB)
PODPORA IZOBRAŽEVANJA NA DALJAVO V SUDANUJan Križnar
, 2016, diplomsko delo/naloga
Opis: Raziskava obravnava izgradnjo učnega gradiva za izobraževanje na daljavo v Sudanu. Predstavljena so osnovna teoretična izhodišča izobraževanja na daljavo in uporabe računalnika v izobraževanju. Kratko so opisane značilnosti nekaterih primernih informacijsko-komunikacijskih tehnologij ter izbrane potrebne za potrebe raziskave. Učno gradivo za učenje osnov angleškega jezika za potrebe izobraževanja na daljavo v Sudanu je izdelano z orodjem eXe Learning. Izveden je pilotni preizkus na populaciji slovensko govorečih anketirancev. Rezultati so pokazali, da je učno gradivo primerno zahtevno za širšo populacijo. Predlagane so možnosti nadgradnje razvitega učnega gradiva in za njegovo potencialno uporabo tudi na drugih območjih, kjer je prisotna begunska kriza.
Ključne besede: izobraževanje na daljavo, eXe Learning, učno gradivo za učenje osnov angleškega jezika, testiranje učnega gradiva
Objavljeno: 01.07.2016; Ogledov: 417; Prenosov: 43
Celotno besedilo (2,83 MB)
Navzkrižno testiranje simboličnih in konektivističnih pristopov strojnemu učenju na specializiranih bazah akutnega vnetja slepičaMilan Zorman
, Sandi Pohorec
, Bojan Butolen
, Bojan Žlahtič
, Peter Kokol
, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek
Ključne besede: acute appendicitis, decision trees, artificial neural networks, machine learning, cross-testing, medica informatics
Objavljeno: 30.12.2015; Ogledov: 858; Prenosov: 16
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Interactive learning environment for children in the beliefs of pre-school teachersMagdalena Grochowalska
, 2014, kratki znanstveni prispevek
Opis: The following academic article is based on a PhD thesis that is currently being completed, titled Education and Qualifications of Elementary School Teachers in the U.S. State of Kansas and Slovenia for teaching in classes with immigrant children. The research study titled Integrating Multicultural Subject Matters into Teaching Strategies of Elementary School Teachers (The U.S. State of Kansas), conducted in 2007 based on a sample of 89 elementary school teachers in the U.S. State of Kansas, represents one aspect of assessing the adequacy of undergraduate education regarding multicultural subject matters for elementary school teachers in Slovenia and the U.S. (State of Kansas) as well as the qualifications of elementary school teachers of both countries for working with immigrant children. Despite the long-standing tradition of multicultural education in western countries, the research results for Kansas elementary school teachers showed a presence of significant discrepancies between the actual and optimal integration of multicultural subject matters. These results indicate that future undergraduate study programs will have to invest more time in developing multicultural skills and providing practical experiences for working in a diverse environment.
Ključne besede: learning environment, preschool child, preschool teachers` beliefs, sociocultural approach
Objavljeno: 21.12.2015; Ogledov: 787; Prenosov: 83
Celotno besedilo (650,18 KB)
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