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Investigations of the structure and process parameters of sewing operation
Daniela Zavec Pavlinič, Zvonko Dragčević, Dubravko Rogale, Jelka Geršak, 1999, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: An original measuring equipment and a system for investigating process parameters of the sewing operation structure and for establishing optimal working methods and real working conditions of the man-machine system in garment sewing are presented. The measuring equipment consists of a process parameter measuring and data storing system and a bi-plane video recording system. The measuring and data storage system is equipped with four sensors which measure the rotation speed of the main shaft, the movements of arms in the picking-up and laying-off zones, and the movements of the pedal regulator used to control the sewing dynamics. The bi-plane video recording system is used to record simultaneously the working movements (working methods) performed at the discussed workplace. From the process parameter measurements graphs for the technological operation structure are obtained, including the duration of individual suboperations and changes occuring due to pedal regulator movements. The bi-plane video recording system investigates the working method employed, the basic movements and and the optimal logical sets of movements, as well as the cyclograms of the movements used to define space and time values. The results obtained are compared with the MTM results, and the differences between them are presented.
Ključne besede: textile industry, garment engineering, sewing operation structure, process parameters, bi-plane video recording, workplace design
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 2131; Prenosov: 49
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Compact spinning for improved quality of ring-spun yarns
Momir Nikolić, Zoran Stjepanović, Franc Lesjak, Andrej Štritof, 2003, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: A new impulse in the field of ring spinning technology is offered by compact-condensed spinning. The article presents the comparison of two chosen spinning systems for the production of compact yarns. We have analysed and compared the physical, mechanical and morphological properties of conventional and compact yarns, spun at the same technological and kinematical parameters from the same cotton, cotton/PES and cotton/viscose roving. The construction specificities of the Suessen and Zinser compact ring spinning frames, on which the comparative spinning was performed, are described within this work. The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of differences in compacting systems on yarn quality, and to compare the compact and conventional yarns produced.
Ključne besede: textile industry, ring spinning, compact spinning, compact yarns, mechanical properties, physical properties
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1985; Prenosov: 56
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Structure-mechanical properties relationship of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibers
Milena Žiberna-Šujica, Majda Sfiligoj-Smole, 2003, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The correlation between the fiber structure and mechanical properties of two different poly(ethylene terephthalate) fiber types, that is, wool and cotton types produced by three producers, was studied. Fiber structure was determinedusing different analytical methods. Significant differences in the suprastructure of both types of conventional textile fibers were observed, although some slight variations in the structure existed between those fibers of the same type provided by different producers. A better-developed crystalline structure composed of bigger, more perfect, and more axially oriented crystallites was characterized for the cotton types of PET fibers. Crystallinity is higher, long periods are longer, and amorphous domains inside the long period cover bigger parts in this fiber type in comparison with the wool types of fibers. In addition, amorphous and average molecular orientation is higher. The better mechanical properties of cotton PET fiber types, as demonstrated by a higher breaking tenacity and modulus accompanied by a lower breaking elongation, are due to the observed structural characteristics.
Ključne besede: textile industry, fibers, mechanical properties, polyethyleneterephthalate
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1752; Prenosov: 108
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Process integration of a steam turbine
Andreja Goršek, Peter Glavič, 2003, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Cogeneration consists of combined production of electricity and heat using only one fuel which allows remarkable energy savings in comparison with a system producing electricity and heat separately. The possibilities for integrating a cogeneration system with chemical processes has been studied in this paper. Improvement in the systems where high temperature streams exist can be achieved by direct integration of steam turbine with them. Hot reactor utility was used instead of fuel to produce electricity and steam for further process heat requirements. A thermodinamics oriented approach to identify and preliminary design a cogeneration plant that completely satisfies process heat and power demand is highlighted. Pinch analysis with extended grand composite curve enables rational choice of utilities. The acrylic acid process was used to illustrate the procedure proposed. Economic attractiveness based on payback time and net present worth indicated that the steam turbine based cogeneration system would yield return period of less than 3 months, showing that the investment in cogeneration could be of interest for this plant.
Ključne besede: process energetics, efficient energy use, process industry, cogeneration systems, acrylic acid, technological processes
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1870; Prenosov: 101
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Absorptive capacity in European manufacturing: a Delphi study
Petra Jung Erceg, Krsto Pandža, Heidi Armbruster, Carsten Dreher, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This paper sets out to discuss the results of a specific part of a Europe-wide Delphi study that considers issues of absorptive capacity in European manufacturing. Owing to the importance to competitiveness of increasing innovative capabilities in manufacturing it is highly relevant to explore how a wide community of manufacturing experts experience the phenomenon of absorptive capacity and sense future developments. A two round Delphi method was designed in which more than 3,000 experts from 22 European countries assessed 101 statements. This paper discusses eight statements focused on the issue of absorptive capacity. The results show a general consensus about the influence of different inter-firm relationships in acquiring external knowledge and a diversified knowledge structure for assimilating the acquired knowledge. The study also indicates some potential challenges and contradictions in managing inter-firm relationships and knowledge diversity aswell as perceived barriers for future developments of absorptive capacity. Delphi survey is an empirical method subject to the limitation of testing or inductively building theoretical concepts. The results of the Delphi study arepredominantly centred on policy implication and on informing strategic decision-making at manufacturing firms. This paper discusses one of the biggest Delphi surveys ever conducted in Europe. Its comprehensiveness increases the value of the results.
Ključne besede: industry, manufacturing systems, knowledge capture, Delphi method, Europ
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1607; Prenosov: 85
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Case study of the sonochemical decolouration of textile azo dye Reactive Black 5
Simona Vajnhandl, Alenka Majcen Le Marechal, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The decolouration and mineralization of reactive dye C.I. Reactive Black 5, a well-known representative of non-biodegradable azo dyes, by means of ultrasonic irradiation at 20, 279 and 817 kHz has been investigated with emphasis on the effect of various parameters on decolouration and degradation efficiency. Characterization of the used ultrasound systems was performed using calorimetric measurements and oxidative species monitoring using Fricke and iodine dosimeter. Experiments were carried out with low frequency probe type, and a high-frequency plate type transducer at 50, 100 and 150 W of acoustic power and within the 5-300 mgžL initial dye concentration range. Decolouration, as well as radical production, increased with increasing frequency, acoustic power, and irradiation time. Any increase in initial dye concentration results in decreased decolouration rates. Sonochemical decolouration was substantially depressed by the addition of 2-methyl-2-propanol as a radical scavenger, which suggests radical-induced reactions in the solution. Acute toxicity to marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri was tested before and after ultrasound irradiation. Under the conditions employed in this study, no toxic compounds were detected after 6 h of irradiation. Mineralization of the dye was followed by TOC measurements. Relatively low degradation efficiency (50% after 6 h of treatment) indicates that ultrasound is rather inefficient in overall degradation, when used alone.
Ključne besede: textile industry, wastewater treatment, textile dyeing, reactive dyes, azo dyes, decoloration, ultrasound, degradation, decoloration kinetics, oxidizing species
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 2069; Prenosov: 94
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Efficiency of the coagulation/flocculation method for the treatment of dyebath effluents
Vera Golob, Aleksandra Vinder, Marjana Simonič, 2005, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Textile dyeing processes are among the most environment-unfriendly industrial processes, because they produce coloured wastewaters that are heavily polluted with dyes, textile auxiliaries and chemicals. The coagulation/flocculation method was studied as a wastewater treatment technique for the decolourization of residual dyebath effluents after dyeing cotton/polyamide blends using reactive and acid dyes. It was discovered that acombination of aluminium sulphate and a cationic organic flocculant yields an effective treatment for residual dyebath wastewaters since almost complete decolourization was achieved, TOC, COD, AOX, BOD and the anionic surfactants were reduced and the biodegradability was increased.
Ključne besede: textile industry, reactive dyes, acid dyes, wastewater, čiščenje odpadnih vodwastewater treatment, flocculation, coagulation, ecological analyses, wastewater decoloration, Jar-tests
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 2296; Prenosov: 99
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Ultrasound in textile dyeing an the decolouration/mineralization of textile dyes
Simona Vajnhandl, Alenka Majcen Le Marechal, 2005, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: In recent decades ultrasound has established an important place in different industrial processes such as the medical field, and has started to revolutionize environmental protection. The idea of using ultrasound in textile wet processes is not a new one. On the contrary there are many reportsfrom the 1950s and 1960s describing the beneficial effects of ultrasound in textile wet processes. The aim of this paper is to review some fundamentals of ultrasound, its broad application and gather some new researchand studies regarding ultrasound application in textile wet processes,with the emphasis on textile dyeing and the decolouration/mineralization of textile wastewaters.
Ključne besede: textile industry, textile dyes, wastewater, decoloration, degradation, ultrsound
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1744; Prenosov: 46
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Thread loadings in different measuring positions on the sewing machine
Darja Žunič-Lojen, Jelka Geršak, 2005, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The knowledge of sewing thread tension determined at different measuring locations on the sewing machine is the basis for the definition of the loading magnitudes acting during the stitch formation process and the locations at which they appear, concerning the stitch cycle or the main shaft turn of the sewing machine. During the stitch formation process the sewing thread is exposed to the highest tension in the region between the tension regulator and the thread take-up lever, following by tension in the region between the take-up lever and the needle and in the region in front of the tension regulator. Dynamic tension and tension force are also dependent on stitch velocity.
Ključne besede: textile industry, sewing, kinetics of sewing, thread, dynamic thread loadings
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 2007; Prenosov: 98
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