Recent Canadian advances in nuclear-based hydrogen production and the thermochemical Cu-Cl cycleGreg F. Naterer
, S. Suppiah
, M. Lewis
, K. Gabriel
, İbrahim Dinçer
, Marc A. Rosen
, Michael Fowler
, G. Rizvi
, E. B. Easton
, B. M. Ikeda
, M. H. Kaye
, L. Lu
, I. Pioro
, P. Spekkens
, P. Tremaine
, J. Mostaghimi
, Jurij Avsec
, J. Jiang
, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: This paper presents recent Canadian advances in nuclear-based production of hydrogen by electrolysis and the thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle. This includes individual process and reactor developments within the Cu-Cl cycle, thermochemical properties, advanced materials, controls, safety, reliability, economic analysis of electrolysis at off-peak hours, and integrating hydrogen plants with Canada's nuclear power plants. These enabling technologies are being developed by a Canadian consortium, as part of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for hydrogen production from the next generation of nuclear reactors.
Ključne besede: nuclear-based hydrogen production, thermochemical copper-chlorine cycle, electrolysis
Objavljeno: 31.05.2012; Ogledov: 1107; Prenosov: 52
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CATALYTIC GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FROM BIOMASS DERIVED LACTIC ACID VIA AQUEOUS PHASE REFORMINGMonika Bosilj
, 2015, magistrsko delo
Opis: Hydrogen production from aqueous phase reforming (APR) of organic acids in aqueous phase and from residue of a biomass decomposition process over 3 wt% Pt/ZrO2 has been studied in the absence and presence of barium ions. The results have been compared with Pt/TiO2, Pt/C and Ni/C catalysts. Having identified barium hydroxide as a promising reagent in combination with Pt/ZrO2 catalyst for the hydrogen production out of organic acids, the method for the lactic acid conversion was extended. Lactic acid (LA) was analysed as a major compound in an aqueous solution after a biomass digestion process with Ba(OH)2.
Gaseous and aqueous products after APR reaction of LA mixture with barium hydroxide were identified by different analytical techniques. Gaseous products consisted mainly of permanent gases such as hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane. The results showed that mixture of LA in combination with both barium hydroxide and Pt/ZrO2 catalyst had the highest hydrogen production rate and the highest selectivity to hydrogen, whereas low gaseous product amount were observed from mixture of LA and only barium hydroxide or Pt/ZrO2 catalyst. Methane and higher amount of carbon dioxide were detected in gas phase products particular in the presence of Pt/ZrO2 catalyst in the mixture.
Aqueous products consisted mainly of pyruvic acid, acetic acid and salts, such as acetate and propionate. The complete conversion of LA after APR was reached in mixture of LA and Ba(OH)2∙8H2O over Pt/ZrO2 catalyst. Mixture of LA and Ba(OH)2∙8H2O or Pt/ZrO2 catalyst gave lower conversion of LA.
Amount of gaseous products, selectivity to hydrogen and LA conversion were affected by higher reactant mixture concentration. In comparison to low concentrated mixtures, high concentrated mixtures contained larger amounts of barium but the same amount of Pt/ZrO2 catalyst. BET analyses showed much smaller pore volume of spent Pt/ZrO2 catalyst, which was used in APR reaction of high concentrated (1.5 mol/L) mixture. Therefore, lower gas product amounts, lower selectivity to hydrogen and only 63 % conversion of LA were effects of deactivated Pt/ZrO2 catalyst.
The results showed that hydrogen generation from APR of LA and conversion of LA in aqueous phase are hardly influenced by the Pt/ZrO2 catalyst presence, which in combination with barium ions, promotes the catalytic APR reaction.
Ključne besede: biomass, hydrogen production, aqueous phase reforming, lactic acid
Objavljeno: 20.02.2015; Ogledov: 1018; Prenosov: 85
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