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1.
Do women see things differently than men do?
Norbert Jaušovec, Ksenija Jaušovec, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of gender on brain activity. Thirty male and 30 female respondents solved simple auditory and visual tasks while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Also recorded was the percentage of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (%StO2) in the respondents' frontal brain areas with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The attended task condition was based on the oddball paradigm. Respondents had to mentally count infrequent target stimuli - tones or shapes. In the unattended condition they just listened to tones or viewed different shapes. Gender related differences in EEG activity were only observed in the amplitudes of the early evoked gamma response and the P3 component. Women displayed higher amplitudes than men. A second finding was that these differences were more pronounced for the visual than for the auditory stimuli. No gender related differences were observed in the ERP latencies, as well as in the amplitudes of the P1-N1 complex, and the induced gamma response. The NIRS data showed that males in their frontal brain areas displayed a higher percentage of StO2 than did females; and males also showed a higher increase in %StO2 during task performance as compared with the resting condition. Taken all together the results suggest that the females' visual event-categorization process is more efficient than in males. The data are discussed in the theoretical framework of the evolutionary theory of human spatial sex differences.
Ključne besede: psychology, functional neuroimaging, brain activities, neuropsychology, gender, gender differences
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 1021; Prenosov: 61
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2.
Gender related differences in visual and auditory processing of verbal and figural tasks
Norbert Jaušovec, Ksenija Jaušovec, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The aim of the present study was to investigate gender related differences in brain activity for tasks of verbal and figural content presented in the visual and auditory modality. Thirty male and 30 female respondents solved four tasks while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Also recorded was the percentage of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (%StO2) in the respondents' frontal brain areas with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The main findings of the study can be summarized as follows. (1) Most pronounced differences between males and females were observed for the factor modality-visual/auditory. (2) Gender related differences in neuroelectric brain responses could be observed during the solution of auditory and visual tasks; however, on the behavioral level only for the visual tasks did females display shorter reaction times than males. The ERP amplitudes of the early evoked gamma response, P1, and P3 were higher in females than males, whereas the N4 amplitude was higher in males than females. The differences were more noticeable in the visual modality. The NIRS showed a more bilateral involvement of the frontal brain areas in females as compared with a more left hemispheric frontal activity in males. In the task conditions an increase in right hemispheric activity in females was observed; however, this increase was less pronounced in the visual than the auditory domain, indicating a more lateralized processing of visual stimuli in females. Taken all together the results suggest that the females' visual event-categorization process is more efficient than in males.
Ključne besede: psychology, neuropsychology, brain activities, visual processing, auditory processing, gender, gender differences
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 1246; Prenosov: 68
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

3.
Gender and religious orientation
Sergej Flere, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Gender has been proven to be a substantial indicator of differences with respect to religiosity within Christianity. Females are always more frequentlyand intensively religious in comparison to males (Francis, 1997). The question of whether this holds for other religions remains unanswered. In this study we focus on university students in Catholic, Christian Orthodox andMuslim environments of Central Europe and in an American, predominantly Protestant environment. Religiosity is studied by differentiating between intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity (Allport and Ross, 1967). If it were foundthat females are more social-extrinsic religious, one couldspeak of a sociological, instrumental and situational religiosity among females. On the contrary, one is closer to speaking of an immanent difference between the genders. Sociological (with the exception of socialization) and Freudian explanations are not confirmed. Psychological explanations, which include anxiety, authoritarianism and femininity (Bem,1981) are good at explaining thedifferences in religiosity between the genders.
Ključne besede: sociology of religion, religious orientation, religious environments, religiosity, religious experiences, intrinsic orientation, extrinsic orientation, gender differences, gender
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 986; Prenosov: 50
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

4.
Fear of crime in Zagreb, Croatia
Irma Kovčo Vukadin, Tajana Ljubin, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: This study examines the three-dimensional concept of fear of crime and has three aims: 1) to investigate gender differences in the emotional, cognitive and behavioural dimensions of fear of crime; 2) to investigate the impact of victimization on different dimensions of fear of crime in men and women; and 3) to investigate the relation of incivilities to different dimensions of fear of crime. Design/Methods/Approach: Data for the study were gathered from the Fear of Crime Study which included participants living in the Croatian capital. The criteria variables included measures of the three dimensions of fear of crime (affective, cognitive and behavioural). Incivilities and prior victimization were predictors, while age and education were control variables. Findings: There was no difference between men and women in the perception of insecurity when walking alone in a neighbourhood after dark, either in the perceived likelihood of victimization or in perceived incivility. The findings suggest that there are some differences in the correlation pattern of the three analysed dimensions of fear of crime in the female and male samples. Hierarchical linear regressions show that in the male sample, victimization due to theft was positively related and sexual victimization was negatively related to perceived insecurity, while in women victimization added significantly only to protective strategies. In both the male and female sample, incivilities made a significant independent contribution to an explanation of the perception of endangerment, the likelihood of victimization and the seriousness of crime consequences. In addition, the contribution of some different patterns of incivilities to the dimensions of fear of crime was established for the male and female sample. Research Limitations/Implications: The research is limited to the Croatian capital. Future research should include a representative sample of the whole state. Practical implications: The results indicate the need for gender differentiation in programs for the greater safety of citizens. Originality/Value: The article gives a valuable insight into different dimensions and gender differences related to fear of crime. It also suggests the need for further clarity of operationalization.
Ključne besede: fear of crime, incivilities, prior victimization, gender differences, Zagreb, Croatia
Objavljeno: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 483; Prenosov: 24
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo
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5.
Comics as a literary-didactic method and their use for reducing gender differences in reading literacy at the primary level of education
Maja Kerneža, Katja Košir, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the systematic use of comics as a literary-didactic method to reduce gender differences in reading literacy and reading motivation at the primary level of education. It was assumed that the use of comics would have a positive effect on pupils’ reading literacy and reading motivation, while also reducing the aforementioned differences between boys and girls. The dimensions of reading literacy and reading motivation were examined in experimental and control groups, before and aſter the intervention, by means of questionnaires and tests for pupils. The sample consisted of 143 pupils from second to fifth grade from two Slovenian primary schools in a rural environment, of which 73 pupils participated in the experimental group and 70 pupils represented the control group. Effects of the use of comics as a literary-didactic method were not found: using comics as a literary-didactic method did not have a statistically significant effect on pupils’ reading literacy and reading motivation. However, when the four-way structure of the research (taking into account the age and gender of the pupils) was considered, some subgroups showed a statistically significant increase in reading interest and attitude towards reading. No reduction of gender differences in reading literacy and reading motivation was found. Based on the results, guidelines for further research are established and suggestions are offered for teachers’ work.
Ključne besede: comics, gender differences, primary level pupils, reading literacy, reading motivation
Objavljeno: 13.07.2017; Ogledov: 406; Prenosov: 63
.pdf Celotno besedilo (257,02 KB)
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6.
Domestic violence and abuse in intimate relationship from public health perspective
Zlatka Rakovec-Felser, 2014, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: In this article we pay attention to the violence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society-physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship. Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances.
Ključne besede: domestic violence, perpetrator, victim, gender differences
Objavljeno: 08.08.2017; Ogledov: 692; Prenosov: 180
.pdf Celotno besedilo (674,83 KB)
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