Identification of identical twins in police proceduresMiha Dvojmoč
, Veronika Mrak Klavžar
, Vanja Erčulj
, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: Purpose: The aim of the study was to review the treatment of identical twins in crimes and to determine to what extent people notice the switch of identities, to what extent they can distinguish between twins, and what factors are related to the ability to distinguish them. Design/Methods/Approach: We carried out an analysis of literature and a case review about identification of identical twins in police procedures and for the purpose of the article, an online survey was conducted among the general public. Findings: In line with existing research, the survey showed that age, but not gender or length of acquaintance, was related to the ability to distinguish between twins. The ability to distinguish between twins is positively correlated with the observation of confusion between them. Our survey of the public found that the most common indicators for distinguishing between identical twins were facial features, behavior, a distinctive voice, and recognizable accessories. Research Limitations/Implications: A review of the literature on the identification and treatment of twins in relation to criminality reveals several gaps in knowledge. More attention should thus be paid to the problem in the future, possibly to establish criteria for prosecution and to raise awareness that such deviant behavior can occur. In our research, we conducted survey among general public in the future maybe a survey of the experts should be conducted for more comprehensive view of the issue. Among the proposals for further research, it would be reasonable to consider the analysis of cases of identical twins in police practice. Originality/Value: In our own research, we examined the factors associated with identity swapping among identical twins.
Ključne besede: identical twins, distinction, identity switch, fraud
Objavljeno v DKUM: 13.04.2023; Ogledov: 355; Prenosov: 15
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K-vertex: a novel model for the cardinality constraints enforcement in graph databases : doctoral dissertationMartina Šestak
, 2022, doktorska disertacija
Opis: The increasing number of network-shaped domains calls for the use of graph database technology, where there are continuous efforts to develop mechanisms to address domain challenges. Relationships as 'first-class citizens' in graph databases can play an important role in studying the structural and behavioural characteristics of the domain. In this dissertation, we focus on studying the cardinality constraints mechanism, which also exploits the edges of the underlying property graph. The results of our literature review indicate an obvious research gap when it comes to concepts and approaches for specifying and representing complex cardinality constraints for graph databases validated in practice.
To address this gap, we present a novel and comprehensive approach called the k-vertex cardinality constraints model for enforcing higher-order cardinality constraints rules on edges, which capture domain-related business rules of varying complexity. In our formal k-vertex cardinality constraint concept definition, we go beyond simple patterns formed between two nodes and employ more complex structures such as hypernodes, which consist of nodes connected by edges. We formally introduce the concept of k-vertex cardinality constraints and their properties as well as the property graph-based model used for their representation. Our k-vertex model includes the k-vertex cardinality constraint specification by following a pre-defined syntax followed by a visual representation through a property graph-based data model and a set of algorithms for the implementation of basic operations relevant for working with k-vertex cardinality constraints.
In the practical part of the dissertation, we evaluate the applicability of the k-vertex model on use cases by carrying two separate case studies where we present how the model can be implemented on fraud detection and data classification use cases. We build a set of relevant k-vertex cardinality constraints based on real data and explain how each step of our approach is to be done. The results obtained from the case studies prove that the k-vertex model is entirely suitable to represent complex business rules as cardinality constraints and can be used to enforce these cardinality constraints in real-world business scenarios. Next, we analyze the performance efficiency of our model on inserting new edges into graph databases with varying number of edges and outgoing node degree and compare it against the case when there is no cardinality constraints checking. The results of the statistical analysis confirm a stable performance of the k-vertex model on varying datasets when compared against a case with no cardinality constraints checking. The k-vertex model shows no significant performance effect on property graphs with varying complexity and it is able to serve as a cardinality constraints enforcement mechanism without large effects on the database performance.
Ključne besede: Graph database, K-vertex cardinality constraint, Cardinality, Business rule, Property graph data model, Property graph schema, Hypernode, Performance analysis, Fraud detection, Data classification
Objavljeno v DKUM: 10.08.2022; Ogledov: 575; Prenosov: 63
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Public and private policing of financial crimes : the struggle for co-ordinationMichael Levi
, 2010, pregledni znanstveni članek
The purpose of doing this is to move our attention, both theoretically and empirically, away from looking solely at the police as deliverers of “policing” and more in the direction of the web of police, non-police agencies (like financial regulators and departmental investigators in the UK), global and local private interveners (like payment card systems, banks, and insurance companies).
Interviews with high officials and operational public and private sector personnel, principally in the UK but also in continental Europe, North America and Australasia.
This paper deals with the evolving shape of the control of financial crimes, especially frauds. Most policing activity in the area of UK public sector fraud is undertaken not by the police but by departmental investigators; most frauds against business come to the attention of the police via corporate actors; while frauds against the public may be reported direct, or via intermediaries like credit card issuers. It is difficult for public sector bodies to escape their narrow departmental orientations in developing “joint working” in public-public partnerships. Publicprivate partnerships have been developing rapidly in dealing with volume frauds such as payment card and insurance frauds, but less rapidly in more elite whitecollar crime areas such as management fraud, which are less predictable and where elites resist accountability.
It is misconceived to look only at public police activity when assessing the scope and impact of fraud control. The research shows that considerable efforts are made by the police and different parts of the public and the private sector in the UK to harmonise intelligence, but scarcity of investigative resources means that both the private and public sectors are frustrated in getting action on their intelligence product.
Ključne besede: fraud, white-collar crime, economic crime, public-private partnerships, policing
Objavljeno v DKUM: 12.05.2020; Ogledov: 721; Prenosov: 44
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GOLJUFIJA NA ŠKODO EVROPSKIH SKUPNOSTIJure Blažič
, 2010, diplomsko delo
Opis: Kaznivo dejanje goljufije na škodo Evropskih skupnosti je Republika Slovenija v svoj pravni red uvedla z novim Kazenskim zakonikom, ki je v veljavi od 1. novembra 2008. S tem je izpolnila še zadnji del obveznosti, ki jih je sprejela s tem, ko je z zakonom ratificirala Konvencijo o zaščiti finančnih interesov Evropskih skupnosti, vključno z njenimi protokoli.
Na podlagi navedene konvencije so bili v nedavni preteklosti sprejeti številni praktični ukrepi v boju zoper goljufije, ki imajo za posledico oškodovanje proračunskih sredstev Evropske unije. Ustanovljen je bil Evropski urad za boj proti goljufijam — OLAF. V vseh državah članicah podpisnicah konvencije delujejo operativne službe AFCOS, ki sodelujejo s tem uradom.
Sprejetje in uveljavitev Lizbonske pogodbe, ki ustanavlja še tesnejšo zvezo med državami članicami, ponuja še dodatne ukrepe, ki se lahko sprejmejo na tem področju. Pravno urejanje na področju kazenskega prava bo mogoče tudi preko uredb in direktiv, kar bo olajšalo unifikacijo prava na tem področju. Prav tako je pomembna novost ustanovitev Evropskega javnega tožilstva, čigar naloga bo v prvi vrsti prav varovanje skupnih finančnih interesov.
Prav tako se v prihodnosti pričakuje uveljavitev t.i. Corpus Iurisa kazenskopravnih določb, ki bo prav tako urejal predmetno tematiko.
Z vsemi navedenimi ukrepi se nudijo realne možnosti za izgradnjo trdnega sistema javnih financ v okviru Evropske unije, to pa vodi k tesnejši nadnacionalni zvezi in k večjemu zaupanju evropskih državljanov v njene institucije.
Ključne besede: goljufija na škodo Evropskih skupnosti, proračun Evropske unije, Konvencija o zaščiti finančnih interesov Evropskih skupnosti, Evropski urad za boj proti goljufijam – OLAF, Anti-Fraud Coordination Service – AFCOS
Objavljeno v DKUM: 04.05.2010; Ogledov: 4392; Prenosov: 538
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