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Design and optimization of a spherical magnetorheological actuator
Jakob Vizjak, Anton Hamler, Marko Jesenik, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Recently, an increasing number of electromagnetic devices have been using smart fluids. These include ferrofluids, electrorheological fluids, and magnetorheological (MR) fluids. In the paper, magnetorheological fluids are considered for use in a spherical actuator for haptic applications. An approach is presented to the design and optimization of such a device, using finite element method modelling linked with differential evolution (DE). Much consideration was given to the construction of the objective function to be minimized. A novel approach to objective function assembly was used, using reference values based on the model design and created with parameters set to the midpoint values of the selected range. It was found to be a useful strategy when the reference values are unknown. There were four parameters to be optimized. Three of them gravitated towards the boundary value, and the fourth (actuator radius) was somewhere in between. The value of the objective function reached a minimum in the range of actuator radius between 42.9880 mm and 45.0831 mm, which is about a 5% difference in regard to the actuator radius. Three passes of optimization were performed with similar results, proving the robustness of the algorithm.
Ključne besede: magnetorheological fluid, finite element method, FEM, optimization, differntial evolution, DE, actuator
Objavljeno v DKUM: 22.05.2024; Ogledov: 64; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,69 MB)
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Ionic hydraulic fluids and seal-material compatibility
Darko Lovrec, Roland Kalb, Vito Tič, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Manufacturers of hydraulic fluids invest a lot of effort and resources in improving their physico-chemical properties, with the goal of getting as close as possible to the properties of an ideal hydraulic fluid. It should be non- flammable, environmentally friendly, sustainable and should have excellent physical and chemical properties. After decades of development in the field of ionic liquids and the search for an ionic liquid suitable for use in hydraulic systems, ionic hydraulic liquids are now already in industrial use, especially on devices that operate in harsh and risky operating conditions. Since ionic hydraulic fluids are a completely new type of hydraulic fluid, one of the issues is their compatibility with the materials present in the hydraulic components, including all the seals. This paper refers to the process of testing the compatibility of hydraulic seal materials with different types of ionic hydraulic fluids according to the standardized percentages and recommendations, with emphasis on changes in the swell, shrinkage and hardness of the seals. The presented results are a useful guide for selecting suitable seal materials in case of using high-tech ionic hydraulic fluids.
Ključne besede: ionic hydraulic fluids, seal material, compatibility, fluid-testing method, test results
Objavljeno v DKUM: 19.03.2024; Ogledov: 170; Prenosov: 8
.pdf Celotno besedilo (970,22 KB)
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Reconstruction of a fluid bed device for separating granular material from the grinding process of rapid antigen tests
Miha Jordan, Tilen Švarc, Peter Majerič, Rebeka Rudolf, Matej Zadravec, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The article includes the study and reconstruction of a fluid bed device with the purpose of separating the granular material from the grinding process of rapid antigen tests. The following techniques were performed, with the purpose of characterisation of the ground particles: sieve analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The paper includes experimental testing of a simplified separation process with zeolite spheres and paper strips, supported by a numerical model. The flow conditions’ impact on the behaviour and interactions of particles of the considered problem were simulated using coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the discrete element method (DEM) approach. The separation process of zeolite spheres and paper strips was found to be efficient. The simulation results showed the appropriate behaviour of the particles during the process. We explained the results’ deviations, and we also presented the shortcomings and possible improvements. Further research is required to define the adequacy of the process, while using actual ground material of rapid antigen tests.
Ključne besede: rapid antigen tests, nanomaterials, fluidised bed, computational fluid dynamics, discrete element method, characterisation
Objavljeno v DKUM: 05.01.2024; Ogledov: 266; Prenosov: 22
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,21 MB)
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Sustainable processing of materials using supercritical fluids : doktorska disertacija
Dragana Borjan, 2022, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Supercritical fluids (SCFs) are powerful solvents with many unique properties. They have great potential for many processes, from extraction to chemical reactions and recycling. Accordingly, phase equilibrium data and thermodynamic and transport properties measurements in systems with a supercritical phase, as well as reliable and versatile mathematical models of the phase equilibrium thermodynamics, are needed for the process design and economic feasibility studies. The dissertation focuses on the benefits of supercritical fluid technology and consists of three main sections. The first section includes studies of the phase equilibria of the binary gas-alcohol and gas-urea derivatives. The influence of pressure and temperature on the system behaviour (solubility, viscosity, density, interfacial tension, melting point curve) was investigated. Most of the experiments were carried out with a high-pressure optical view cell, with minor modifications of the apparatus and measurement principle to determine mentioned thermodynamic and transport properties. The second part of the dissertation deals with the recovery of extracts from natural materials. Special interest is oriented towards supercritical fluid extracts, characterised by strong biological activities, especially antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Supercritical fluid extraction has been performed on a semi-continuous apparatus (at pressures of 150 bar and 250 bar and temperatures of 313.15 K and 333.15 K for oregano extraction; and at pressures of 100 bar and 300 bar and temperatures of 313.15 K and 333.15 K for red beetroot extraction) and various methods such as the microdilution method and the DPPH method were used to determine antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. In the third part, an overview of different methods for recycling carbon fibre reinforced composites is given, including chemical recycling with supercritical fluids. This field has not been well explored, and the approach is relatively new but very interesting from a sustainable point of view. For an economically feasible process design, the thermodynamic and mass transfer data have to be determined. The principles of the future lab- and pilot-scale operations demand these supporting data be known. The results obtained in the frame of this study represent the high added value in the scientific field. They are essential to design and modify processes that yield products that cannot be achieved with conventional production processes.
Ključne besede: supercritical fluids, alcohols, urea, phase equilibria, viscosity, density, interfacial tension, modified capillary method, isolation methods, supercritical fluid extraction, pharmacological activity, carbon fiber reinforced composites, recycling techniques
Objavljeno v DKUM: 11.10.2022; Ogledov: 879; Prenosov: 127
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,64 MB)

Mixed boundary elements for laminar flows
Matjaž Ramšak, Leopold Škerget, 1999, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This paper presents a mixed boundary element formulation of the boundary domain integral method (BDIM) for solving diffusion-convective transport problems. The basic idea of mixed elements is the use of a continuos interpolation polynomial for conservative field function approximation and a discontinuous interpolation polynomial for its normal derivative along the boundary element. In this way, the advantages of continuous field function approximation are retained and its conservation is preserved while the normal flux values are approximated by interpolation nodal points with a uniquely defined normal direction. Due to the use of mixed boundary elements, the final discretized matrix system is overdetermined and a special solver based on the least squares method is applied. Driven cavity, natural and forced convection in a closed cavity are studied. Driven caviaty results at Re=100, 400 and 1000 agree better with the benchmark solution than Finite Element Method of Finite Volume Method results for the same grid density with 21 x 21 degrees of freedom. The average Nusselt number values for natural convection ▫$10^3$▫▫$le$▫Ra▫$le$▫▫$10^6$▫ agree better than 0.1% with benchmark solutions for maximal calculated grid desities 61 x 61 degrees for freedom.
Ključne besede: fluid mechanics, incompressible fluid, laminar flow, velocity vorticity formulation, boundary element method, mixed boundary elements
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 2234; Prenosov: 95
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Computational fluid dynamics by boundary-domain integral method
Leopold Škerget, Matjaž Hriberšek, G. Kuhn, 1999, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: A boundary-domain integral method for the solution of general transport phenomena incompressible fluid motion given by the Navier-Stokes equation set is presented. Velocity-vorticity formulation of the conservations is employed. Different integral representations for conservation field functions based on different fundamental solutions are developed. Special attention is given to the use of subdomain technique and Krylov subspace iterative solvers. The computed solutions of several benchmark problems agree well with available experimental and other computational results.
Ključne besede: fluid mechanics, fluid dynamics, numerical methods, boundary domain integral method, viscous fluid, heat transfer, diffusion-convective solution
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 2342; Prenosov: 76
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BEM for non-Newtonian fluid flow
Leopold Škerget, Niko Samec, 1999, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The main purpose of this work is to present the use of the boundary-domain integral method (BDIM) to analyse the flow behaviour of non-Newtoninan fluids. A few available parametric viscosity models are applied representing a non-linear dependence on shear strain rate and shear stress. To evaluate the presented approach the Rayleigh-Bernard natural convection was solved at different Rayleigh number values.
Ključne besede: fluid mechanics, non-Newtonian fluids, viscous fluids, velocity-vorticity formulation, boundary domian integral method
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 2292; Prenosov: 94
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On new approach to rheological modeling of an electrostatic ash and water - quadratic law
Primož Ternik, 2002, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: In the paper a new rheological model for an electrostatic ash and water mixture is proposed. The fundamental equation of the rheological model was used to determine the relationship between the shear stress and the shear rate as well as the equation of a velocity profile for the flow through a straight pipe. Experimental results obtained from a capillary viscometer were used as the basis to determine the parameters for the proposed model by the non-linear regression analysis. With the Quadratic law a numerical analysis of a mixture flow through a capillary pipe with the finite volume method was performed. The derived equations for the velocity profile, shear stress and shear rate were validated through a comparison of numerically obtained and theoretical results. Finally, the compariosn between the Quadratic and the Power law is presented.
Ključne besede: fluid mechanics, non-Newtonian fluids, mixture of electrofilter ash and water, flow in pipes, capillary pipes, rheological model, velocity profile, shear stress, finite volume method, numerical analysis, quadratic law, power law, mehanika fluidov
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 2346; Prenosov: 46
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Boundary element method for natural convection in non-Newtonian fluid saturated square porous cavity
Renata Jecl, Leopold Škerget, 2003, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The main purpose of this work is to present the use of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) in the analysis of the natural convection in the square porous cavity saturated by the non-Newtonian fluid. The results of hydrodynamic and heat transfer evaluations are reported for the configuration in which the enclosure is heated from a side wall while the horizontal walls are insulated.The flow in the porous medium is modelled using the modified Brinkman extended Darcy model taking into account the non-Darcy viscous effects. The governing equations are transformed by the velocity-vorticity variables formulation enabling the computation scheme to be partitioned into kinematic and kinetic parts. To analyse the effects of the available non-Newtonian viscosity and to evaluate the presented approach, the power law model for shear thinning fluids (n<1), for shear thickening fluids (n>1) and in the limit for the Newtonian fluids (n=1) is considered. Numerical model is tested also for the Carreau model adequate for many non-Newtonian fluids. Solutions for the flow and temperature fields and Nusselt numbers are obtainedin terms of a modified Rayleigh number Ra*, Darcy number Da, and the non-Newtonian model parameters. The agreement between the results obtained with finite difference method is very good indicating that BEM can be efficiently used for solving transport phenomena in saturated porous medium.
Ključne besede: natural convection, non-Newtonian fluid, porous medium, cavity flow, boundary element method, boundary domain integral method
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1843; Prenosov: 95
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Natural convection flows in complex cavities by BEM
Leopold Škerget, Matjaž Hriberšek, Zoran Žunič, 2003, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: A numerical method for the solution of Navier-Stokes equations is developed using an integral representation of the conservation equations. The velocity- vorticity formulation is employed, where the kinematics is given with the Poisson equation for a velocity vector, while the kinetics is represented with the vorticity transport equation. The corresponding boundary-domain integral equations are presented along with discussions of the kinetics and kinematics of the fluid flow problem. THE BEM formulation is developed and tested for natural convection flows in closed cavities with complex geometries.
Ključne besede: fluid dynamics, natural convection, boundary element method, differential equations, closed cavity
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 2015; Prenosov: 86
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