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1.
Cellulose–chitosan functional biocomposites
Simona Strnad, Lidija Fras Zemljič, 2023, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Here, we present a detailed review of recent research and achievements in the field of combining two extremely important polysaccharides; namely, cellulose and chitosan. The most important properties of the two polysaccharides are outlined, giving rise to the interest in their combination. We present various structures and forms of composite materials that have been developed recently. Thus, aerogels, hydrogels, films, foams, membranes, fibres, and nanofibres are discussed, alongside the main techniques for their fabrication, such as coextrusion, co-casting, electrospinning, coating, and adsorption. It is shown that the combination of bacterial cellulose with chitosan has recently gained increasing attention. This is particularly attractive, because both are representative of a biopolymer that is biodegradable and friendly to humans and the environment. The rising standard of living and growing environmental awareness are the driving forces for the development of these materials. In this review, we have shown that the field of combining these two extraordinary polysaccharides is an inexhaustible source of ideas and opportunities for the development of advanced functional materials.
Ključne besede: biocomposites, functional materials, cellulose–chitosan, fibers, films, hydrogels, nanofibers
Objavljeno v DKUM: 19.02.2024; Ogledov: 117; Prenosov: 17
.pdf Celotno besedilo (6,52 MB)
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2.
Pullulan-based films impregnated with silver nanoparticles from the Fusarium culmorum strain JTW1 for potential applications in the food industry and medicine
Magdalena Wypij, Mahendra Rai, Lidija Fras Zemljič, Matej Bračič, Silvo Hribernik, Patrycja Golińska, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Introduction: Biopolymers, such as pullulan, a natural exopolysaccharide from Aureobasidium pullulans, and their nanocomposites are commonly used in the food, pharmaceutical, and medical industries due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Methods: Pullulan was synthesized by the A. pullulans ATCC 201253 strain. Nanocomposite films based on biosynthesized pullulan were prepared and loaded with different concentrations of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by the Fusarium culmorum strain JTW1. AgNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Zeta potential measurements, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. In turn, the produced films were subjected to physico-chemical analyses such as goniometry, UV shielding capacity, attenuated total reflection–Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and their mechanical and degradation properties were assessed. The antibacterial assays of the nanoparticles and the nanocomposite films against both food-borne and reference pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella infantis, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, were performed using standard methods. Results: AgNPs were small (mean 15.1 nm), spherical, and displayed good stability, being coated with protein biomolecules. When used in higher concentrations as an additive to pullulan films, they resulted in reduced hydrophilicity and light transmission for both UV-B and UV-A lights. Moreover, the produced films exhibited a smooth surface. Therefore, it can be concluded that the addition of biogenic AgNPs did not change the morphology and texture of the films compared to the control film. The nanoparticles and nanocomposite films demonstrated remarkable antibacterial activity against both food-borne and reference bacteria. The highest activity of the prepared films was observed against L. monocytogenes. Discussion: The obtained results suggest that the novel nanocomposite films prepared from biosynthesized pullulan and AgNPs can be considered for use in the development of medical products and food packaging. Moreover, this is the first report on pullulan-based nanocomposites with mycogenic AgNPs for such applications.
Ključne besede: Aureobasidium pullulans, pullulan, nanocomposite films, silver nanoparticles, mycosynthesis, nanobiotechnology, applied microbiology, antibacterial activity
Objavljeno v DKUM: 08.09.2023; Ogledov: 299; Prenosov: 22
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,23 MB)
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3.
Seasonal changes in chemical profile and antioxidant activity of Padina pavonica extracts and their application in the development of bioactive chitosan/PLA bilayer film
Martina Čagalj, Lidija Fras Zemljič, Tjaša Kraševac Glaser, Eva Mežnar, Meta Sterniša, Sonja Smole Možina, María del Carmen Razola-Díaz, Vida Šimat, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Seaweeds are a potentially sustainable source of natural antioxidants that can be used in the food industry and possibly for the development of new sustainable packaging materials with the ability to extend the shelf-life of foods and reduce oxidation. With this in mind, the seasonal variations in the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of brown seaweed (Padina pavonica) extracts were investigated. The highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (measured by ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)) were found for P. pavonica June extract. The TPC of 26.69 ± 1.86 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, FRAP of 352.82 ± 15.41 µmole Trolox equivalent (TE)/L, DPPH of 52.51 ± 2.81% inhibition, and ORAC of 76.45 ± 1.47 µmole TE/L were detected. Therefore, this extract was chosen for the development of bioactive PLA bilayer film, along with chitosan. Primary or quaternary chitosan was used as the first layer on polylactic acid (PLA) films. A suspension of chitosan particles with entrapped P. pavonica extract was used as the second layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of layers on the material surface. The highest recorded antioxidant activity of the newly developed films was 63.82% inhibition. The developed functional films exhibited antifogging and antioxidant properties, showing the potential for application in the food industry.
Ključne besede: functional PLA films, seaweed and chitosan bilayer, sustainable natural antioxidants, microwave-assisted extraction
Objavljeno v DKUM: 23.08.2023; Ogledov: 265; Prenosov: 17
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,28 MB)
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4.
Using different surface energy models to assess the interactions between antiviral coating films and phi6 model virus
Zdenka Peršin Fratnik, Olivija Plohl, Vanja Kokol, Lidija Fras Zemljič, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: High molecular weight chitosan (HMWCh), quaternised cellulose nanofibrils (qCNF), and their mixture showed antiviral potential in liquid phase, while this effect decreased when applied to facial masks, as studied in our recent work. To gain more insight into material antiviral activity, spin-coated thin films were prepared from each suspension (HMWCh, qCNF) and their mixture with a 1:1 ratio. To understand their mechanism of action, the interactions between these model films with various polar and nonpolar liquids and bacteriophage phi6 (in liquid phase) as a viral surrogate were studied. Surface free energy (SFE) estimates were used as a tool to evaluate the potential adhesion of different polar liquid phases to these films by contact angle measurements (CA) using the sessile drop method. The Fowkes, Owens–Wendt–Rabel–Kealble (OWRK), Wu, and van Oss–Chaudhury–Good (vOGC) mathematical models were used to estimate surface free energy and its polar and dispersive contributions, as well as the Lewis acid and Lewis base contributions. In addition, the surface tension SFT of liquids was also determined. The adhesion and cohesion forces in wetting processes were also observed. The estimated SFE of spin-coated films varied between mathematical models (26–31 mJ/m2) depending on the polarity of the solvents tested, but the correlation between models clearly indicated a significant dominance of the dispersion components that hinder wettability. The poor wettability was also supported by the fact that the cohesive forces in the liquid phase were stronger than the adhesion to the contact surface. In addition, the dispersive (hydrophobic) component dominated in the phi6 dispersion, and since this was also the case in the spin-coated films, it can be assumed that weak physical van der Waals forces (dispersion forces) and hydrophobic interactions occurred between phi6 and the polysaccharide films, resulting in the virus not being in sufficient contact with the tested material during antiviral testing of the material to be inactivated by the active coatings of the polysaccharides used. Regarding the contact killing mechanism, this is a disadvantage that can be overcome by changing the previous material surface (activation). In this way, HMWCh, qCNF, and their mixture can attach to the material surface with better adhesion, thickness, and different shape and orientation, resulting in a more dominant polar fraction of SFE and thus enabling the interactions within the polar part of phi6 dispersion.
Ključne besede: films, surface free energy, SFE mathematical models, phi6, wettability, spreading, interactions
Objavljeno v DKUM: 21.04.2023; Ogledov: 424; Prenosov: 27
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,21 MB)

5.
Design, Characterisation and Applications of Cellulose-Based Thin Films, Nanofibers and 3D Printed Structures : A Laboratory Manual
Tanja Pivec, Tamilselvan Mohan, Rupert Kargl, Manja Kurečič, Karin Stana-Kleinschek, 2021, drugo učno gradivo

Opis: The introduction of the Laboratory Manual gives the theoretical bases on cellulose and its derivatives, which are used as starting polymers for the preparation of multifunctional polymers with three different advanced techniques - spin coating, electrospinning and 3D printing. In the following, each technique is presented in a separate Lab Exercise. Each exercise covers the theoretical basics on techniques for polymer processing and methods for their characterisation, with an emphasis on the application of prepared materials. The experimental sections contain all the necessary information needed to implement the exercises, while the added results provide students with the help to implement correct and successful exercises and interpret the results.
Ključne besede: multifunctional polymers, polysaccharides, cellulose, electrospun, spin coating, 3D printing, nanofibers, thin films, multifunctional materials, laboratory manuals
Objavljeno v DKUM: 09.03.2021; Ogledov: 810; Prenosov: 23
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6.
EXAFS and IR analysis of electrochromic $NiO_x$/$NiO_xH_y$ thin films
Jana Padežnik Gomilšek, Romana Cerc Korošec, Peter Bukovec, Alojz Kodre, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Electrochromic (EC) thin films of $NiO_x$ and $NiO_xH_y$ are prepared by sol-gel method from nickel chloride precursor and deposited onto a suitable substrate by dip-coating technique. The development of the structure with thermal treatment is investigated by EXAFS and IR spectroscopy in two series of films, with high and low concentration of chloride as counter ions. In the former, the predominant structure before thermal treatment is nickel hydroxide. The baking induces condensation, yet with no trace of NiO. In the latter group, colloidal particles are indicated, on which acetate groups are adsorbed or coordinated. At the maximum EC-response the formation of NiO grains is established by EXAFS and IR.
Ključne besede: electrochromism, thin films, nickel oxide, nickel hydroxide, EXAFS
Objavljeno v DKUM: 18.08.2017; Ogledov: 1289; Prenosov: 100
.pdf Celotno besedilo (286,00 KB)
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7.
Photoregeneration of trimethylsilyl cellulose as a tool for microstructuring ultrathin cellulose supports
Archim Wolfberger, Rupert Kargl, Thomas Grießer, Stefan Spirk, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Microstructured thin films based on cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, have been obtained by UV-irradiation of acid-labile trimethylsilyl cellulose thin films in the presence of N-hydroxynaphtalimide triflate as photoacid generator. We demonstrate that this photoregeneration process can be exploited for the manufacture of cellulose patterns having feature sizes down to 1 μm, with potential applications in life sciences.
Ključne besede: cellulose thin films, cellulose regeneration, patterning of cellulose, photoregeneration
Objavljeno v DKUM: 22.06.2017; Ogledov: 1363; Prenosov: 462
.pdf Celotno besedilo (886,41 KB)
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8.
The function of language in characterization : dialectal speech in the animated film Chicken Little
Tina Cupar, Alenka Valh Lopert, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The article discusses the use of language varieties by the main character in the animated film Chicken Little in English and Slovene. Both versions of the film are dubbed by professional actors and are aimed at a young target audience, children. The main intention of the article is to analyze the characteristics of Chicken Little’s speech in both languages, to compare the differences in the use of language varieties, and to evaluate the consequences of shifts in language use on the character and the story in the target language. The analysis is based on a transcript of the speech and enables comparison on four different levels: phonetics, morphology, syntax and vocabulary. The main focus is on the analysis of speech in the target language: Maribor regional colloquial language, with influence from the dialectal speech of Ruše. The main conditions influencing the use of certain language varieties are taken into consideration: the characteristics of the dubbing process, specifics of the target audience, and prevailing norms related to the use of language on television.
Ključne besede: Slovene language, dialectal speech, varieties of language, animated films, Chicken Little, dubbing, children’s literature
Objavljeno v DKUM: 16.05.2017; Ogledov: 1376; Prenosov: 164
.pdf Celotno besedilo (186,32 KB)
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9.
Morphology and corrosion properties PVD Cr-N coatings deposited on aluminium alloys
Darja Kek-Merl, Ingrid Milošev, Peter Panjan, Franc Zupanič, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The attempt to find an alternative coating for corrosion protection of Al- alloys was made. PVD coatings are one of the possible alternatives for replacement of ecological unfriendly chromate coatings. Chromium-nitride (Cr-N) and Ni/Cr-N coatings were sputtered on aluminium substrates (AA7075 and cladded AA2024). Surface and sub-surface characterizations were performed by AFM and SEM. Special attention was given to defects incorporated into coatings, since they play important role in the corrosion protection of the coating/substrate systems. The cross-sections through the typical defects were performed by ion beam milling incorporated into the SEM. The Vickers hardness of the Cr-N with and without layer of Ni on both substrates was determined. After the coatings deposition, the values of Vickers hardness (10 mN load) increase for 10 to 100-fold compared to the substrates. The corrosion behaviour of Cr-N and Ni/Cr-N thin films was investigated in near neutral 0.1 M solution of NaCl using potentiodynamics electrochemical measurement. Cr-N and Ni/Cr-N coatings shift the corrosion potentials to more positive values. The best corrosion resistance among the tested coating/substrate systems were found for Ni/Cr-N on AA7075 substrate.
Ključne besede: Al-alloys, corrosion properties, CrN films, FIB, PVD coatings
Objavljeno v DKUM: 17.03.2017; Ogledov: 1237; Prenosov: 89
.pdf Celotno besedilo (735,62 KB)
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10.
OLEORESINI IZ RDEČE PEKOČE PAPRIKE - EKSTRAKCIJA IN UPORABA
Jana Simonovska, 2016, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) as widely distributed vegetable crop in the world is an excellent source of nutritive and biologically active compounds. The characteristic compounds, capsaicinoids and carotenoids, highlight the importance of the red hot pepper varieties and their oleoresin extracts in the food and pharmaceutical industry. In the Ph.D. thesis was studied the possibility for a separate and integral utilization of the red hot pepper for obtaining the oleoresins from pericarp, placenta, seeds and stalk. Pre-treatment of the raw material (drying, separation of anatomical structures i.e. pericarp, placenta and seeds, and determination of theirs physico-chemical characteristics and determination of the he characteristic bioactive compounds: capsaicinoids, carotenoids and volatiles was studied, also. The second part of the Ph.D. thesis was focused of the determination of the optimal conditions for isolation of the bioactive capsaicinoids and coloured compounds, through comparative following of the thermodynamical parameters by application of organic solvents and supercritical fluids. Influence of the working parameters: temperature, time, pressure, solid to liquid phase ratio, density, type of solvents, and particle size of raw material on the yield of extract and content of capsaicinoids, colour compounds and volatiles was studied. Modelling of the experimental phase data by application of mathematical methods was performed. Re-utilization of seed and stalk from red hot pepper in form of extracts for development of new formulations as edible films, biopesticides and nanoemulsions was studied, also.
Ključne besede: red hot pepper, pericarp, placenta, seed, stalk, extraction, sub- and supercritical fluids, bioactive compounds, volatiles, re-utilization, edible films, biopesticides, nanoemulsions
Objavljeno v DKUM: 08.11.2016; Ogledov: 2017; Prenosov: 167
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,71 MB)

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