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Composite materials based on waste chicken feather fibers for oil-spill management
Simona Strnad, Andraž Jug, Zdenka Peršin Fratnik, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Oil spills remain one of the greatest man-made ecological threats, despite numerous advanced cleanup approaches. They still pose a major challenge in the search for materials and technologies that work as efficiently and sustainably as possible. Promising natural materials include poultry feathers, which are produced in large quantities every day as a byproduct of the meat industry. In this study, the influence of different forms of absorbents (loose feathers, pillows, and sheets) based on chicken feathers and the addition of an inorganic absorbent, sepiolite, on their absorption capacity was investigated. The chemical and physical surface properties, like morphology, chemical composition, zeta potential, surface free energies and oil absorption capacities were analyzed. The Gibbs free energy of immersion wetting with oil and the work of adhesion of the adsorbents, calculated based on contact angle measurements, were confirmed by the tests of adsorption capacities according to the ASTM 726–12 standard. The results showed that pure loose feathers have the highest oil adsorption capacity, while feather pillows have only half, and composite sheets have only a quarter of this capacity. The addition of inorganic adsorbent sepiolite did not increase the absorption capacity of the composites.
Ključne besede: chicken feather fibers, composites, sepiolite, surface properties, oil adsorption, oil-spill management
Objavljeno v DKUM: 10.05.2024; Ogledov: 53; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,64 MB)
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Cellulose–chitosan functional biocomposites
Simona Strnad, Lidija Fras Zemljič, 2023, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Here, we present a detailed review of recent research and achievements in the field of combining two extremely important polysaccharides; namely, cellulose and chitosan. The most important properties of the two polysaccharides are outlined, giving rise to the interest in their combination. We present various structures and forms of composite materials that have been developed recently. Thus, aerogels, hydrogels, films, foams, membranes, fibres, and nanofibres are discussed, alongside the main techniques for their fabrication, such as coextrusion, co-casting, electrospinning, coating, and adsorption. It is shown that the combination of bacterial cellulose with chitosan has recently gained increasing attention. This is particularly attractive, because both are representative of a biopolymer that is biodegradable and friendly to humans and the environment. The rising standard of living and growing environmental awareness are the driving forces for the development of these materials. In this review, we have shown that the field of combining these two extraordinary polysaccharides is an inexhaustible source of ideas and opportunities for the development of advanced functional materials.
Ključne besede: biocomposites, functional materials, cellulose–chitosan, fibers, films, hydrogels, nanofibers
Objavljeno v DKUM: 19.02.2024; Ogledov: 190; Prenosov: 20
.pdf Celotno besedilo (6,52 MB)
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Novel ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) enhanced by superhydrophobic and self-luminescent features
Ahmad Rizwan Mumtaz, Natalija Bede Odorčić, Núria Garro, Samo Lubej, Andrej Ivanič, Antonio Comite, Marcello Pagliero, Gregor Kravanja, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This study explores the potential of using basalt reinforced UHPC by incorporating simultaneously self-cleaning and self-luminescent features, paving the way for sustainable advancements in civil engineering. New green formulations of UHPC were developed by integrating supplementary cementitious materials and optimizing water to the binder ratio, followed by using basalt fibers to enhance strength and ductility. The fabricated samples with high particle-packing density exhibit sufficient workability and compressive strength up to 136 MPa, and, when incorporating basalt fibers, a notable reduction in brittleness. The inner microstructure of basalt fibers was observed to be smooth, homogeneously distributed, and well adhered to the UHPC matrix. To ensure the desired long-lasting visual appearance of decorative UHPC and reduce future maintenance costs, a time-effective strategy for creating a light-emitting biomimetic surface design was introduced. The samples exhibit high surface roughness, characterized by micro to nano-scale voids, displaying superhydrophobicity with contact angles reaching up to 155.45°. This is accompanied by roll-off angles decreasing to 7.1°, highlighting their self-cleaning features. The self-luminescence feature showcased intense initial light emission, offering a potential energy-efficient nighttime lighting solutio
Ključne besede: UHPC, basalt fibers, mechanical properties, morphology, superhydrophobic, self-luminescence
Objavljeno v DKUM: 29.01.2024; Ogledov: 228; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (14,47 MB)

Signal processor for optical fiber sensors based on MEMS Fabry-Perot interferometer : master's thesis
Nikola Uremović, 2020, magistrsko delo

Opis: In the master thesis, we have created an interrogation system for measuring the change of the optical path in the Fabry-Perot interferometer caused by the strain of the surface at which it was attached to. The change of strain can be calculated via a change in optical path length which is visible as a shift in phase angle. The system will be used as a system for measuring strain, although it can be used for measuring various physical parameters that can cause a change in optical path length, such as pressure, force, temperature, etc. Initially, the theoretical background of the system and project components are represented and explained, following the building process of the electronic and optical part of the project. Lastly, the working principle and programming algorithms of a system are presented and explained. Measurement results are shown at the end, as well as the conclusion that is drawn from the thesis.
Ključne besede: optical fibers, sensors, interferometer, signal processing
Objavljeno v DKUM: 04.11.2020; Ogledov: 1091; Prenosov: 109
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,11 MB)

Fiber-optic sensors for measurements of torsion, twist and rotation : a review
Vedran Budinski, Denis Đonlagić, 2017, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Optical measurement of mechanical parameters is gaining significant commercial interest in different industry sectors. Torsion, twist and rotation are among the very frequently measured mechanical parameters. Recently, twist/torsion/rotation sensors have become a topic of intense fiber-optic sensor research. Various sensing concepts have been reported. Many of those have different properties and performances, and many of them still need to be proven in out-of-the laboratory use. This paper provides an overview of basic approaches and a review of current state-of-the-art in fiber optic sensors for measurements of torsion, twist and/or rotation.
Ključne besede: fiber optic sensors, twist sensors, rotation sensors, circular birefringence, linear birefringence, FBG, polarization, optical fibers, Fiber Bragg Gratings
Objavljeno v DKUM: 22.06.2017; Ogledov: 1499; Prenosov: 388
.pdf Celotno besedilo (8,96 MB)
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Structure-mechanical properties relationship of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibers
Milena Žiberna-Šujica, Majda Sfiligoj-Smole, 2003, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The correlation between the fiber structure and mechanical properties of two different poly(ethylene terephthalate) fiber types, that is, wool and cotton types produced by three producers, was studied. Fiber structure was determinedusing different analytical methods. Significant differences in the suprastructure of both types of conventional textile fibers were observed, although some slight variations in the structure existed between those fibers of the same type provided by different producers. A better-developed crystalline structure composed of bigger, more perfect, and more axially oriented crystallites was characterized for the cotton types of PET fibers. Crystallinity is higher, long periods are longer, and amorphous domains inside the long period cover bigger parts in this fiber type in comparison with the wool types of fibers. In addition, amorphous and average molecular orientation is higher. The better mechanical properties of cotton PET fiber types, as demonstrated by a higher breaking tenacity and modulus accompanied by a lower breaking elongation, are due to the observed structural characteristics.
Ključne besede: textile industry, fibers, mechanical properties, polyethyleneterephthalate
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1819; Prenosov: 109
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Mild oxidation of cellulose fibers using dioxygen as ultimate oxidizing agent
Gabriela Biliuta, Lidija Fras Zemljič, Valeria Harabagiu, Sergiu Coseri, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Two types of regenerate cellulose fibres were oxidized under mild conditions, by using N-hydroxyphthalimide as catalyst and molecular oxygen as ultimate oxidizing agent. The amounts of negatively charged groups introduced were determined by means of potentiometric titration. The degree of polymerization and molar mass of the oxidized fibres determined viscosimetrically, has been found to be almost unaffected during oxidation.
Ključne besede: viscose fibers, modal fibers, oxidation, N-hydroxyphthalimide, NHPI, phthalimide-N-oxyl radical, PINO
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1815; Prenosov: 48
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The interaction ability of cellulosic materials as a function of fine structure and Helmholtz surface energy
Tatjana Kreže, Karin Stana-Kleinschek, Volker Ribitsch, Zdenka Peršin Fratnik, Majda Sfiligoj-Smole, 2005, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Many chemical or physical modification processes significantly influence the accessibility of fiber forming polymers by causing structural changes. The wettability and sorption ability improvements of polymeric materials are major tasks during finishing processes. Different pre-treatment processes are used in order to improve the accessibility of dissociable groups, hydrophilicity, dyeability, and whiteness. These are usually alkaline purification, chemical bleaching and mercerization. In a previous paper we presented the data for structural characteristics (density, crystallinity index, molecular orientation, void volume, diameter and the specific inner surface of void, etc.) of untreated regenerated cellulose fibers (viscose, modal and lyocell) [41]. We now compare the influence of different pre-treatment processes on fiber structure and the accessibility of the chemical groups of these fibers. In order to improve the accessibility, two pre-treatment processes were used: chemical bleaching of fibers and tensionless alkali treatment. The influence of these pre-treatment processes on the structure parameters was evaluated using viscosity measurements (determination of polymerization degree (DIN 54 270)) and iodine sorption ability measurements according to the Schwertassek method (determination of crystallinity index) [13, 16]. The reactivity and accessibility in a polar environment was determined using tensiometry. Contact angles between the fibers and liquids of different polarities were determined using the powder contact angle method and calculated from a modified Washburn equation [26, 28]. The surface free (Helmholtz) energy of differently treated fibers was determined from the contact angle data using the Owens-Wendt-Raeble-Kaelble approximation [30, 33, 35]. The differences in the accessibility of raw and pre-treated regenerated cellulose fibers obtained using tensiometry are compared with the results of the conventional method used to determine moisture adsorption (DIN 54 351, DIN 53 802). In regard to raw fibers, viscose shows the most hydrophilic characteristic: adsorbs the highest amount of moisture, has the fastest penetration velocities (Fig. 6), the smallest contact angle, and the highest SFE (Fig. 8). Modal fibers have the largest contact angle, the lowest SFE, and they adsorb the smallest amount of water vapor. Pre-treatments increase the sorption ability and the surface free (Helmholtz) energy while they decrease the contact angle. This makes the material more accessible to water and chemicals used in the finishing processes although the crystallinity index increases. The main modification in polymer properties caused by the treatments is an increase in the fiber SFE caused by an increase of the fiber surfaces because of swelling in the alkaline medium (washing, slack-mercerization), and due to an increase of accessible OH- and COOH-groups (bleaching). This enables the formation of an increased number of hydrogen bridges between the water molecules and the OH- and COOH-groups. Our investigations confirm the results published earlier thatthe main property necessary for the proper sorption behavior of cellulose materials are the accessible, less ordered regions and not the degree of crystallinity.
Ključne besede: regenerated cellulose fibers, fiber pre-treatment, iodine sorption, cristallinity, tensiometry, contact angle, Helmholtz surface energy, water adsorption
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 2679; Prenosov: 72
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Cellulose fibres functionalised by chitosan : characterization and application
Simona Strnad, Olivera Šauperl, Lidija Fras Zemljič, 2010, samostojni znanstveni sestavek ali poglavje v monografski publikaciji

Ključne besede: cellulose fibers, medical applications, chitosan, antimicrobic properties
Objavljeno v DKUM: 31.05.2012; Ogledov: 2012; Prenosov: 30
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