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The lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid fructose esters in organic media and in supercritical carbon dioxide
Saša Šabeder, Maja Leitgeb, Željko Knez, 2006, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Sugar fatty acid esters are biodegradable surface active compounds in foodstuffs and cosmetics or pharmaceuticals. They have potential in replacing pollutant chemically synthesized surfactants. The enzymatic synthesis of fructose palmitate catalyzed by Candida antarctica B lipase was performed in different organic media in a batch react at atmospheric pressure. The influence of the organic solvent and temperature on the esterification was studied. Since supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) has several advantages over organic solvents, such as high reaction rate, high mass transfer, non-toxicity, non flammability and low price, it was also chosen as a reaction medium for fructose palmitate production. The influence of temperature on immobilized lipase activity was studied at 10 MPa and the results were compared to the results obtained from reactions performed at atmospheric pressure under the same reaction conditions. The highest conversion (67%) was obtained after 24 hours of reaction in SC C02 at 80°C. A change of the particle size distribution and morphology of the untreated lipase and lipase treated with 2-methyl 2-butanol and SC C02 was observed. This article was presented at 1st SEECChE, held in Belgrade, September 25-28, 2005
Ključne besede: chemical processing, high pressure technology, supercritical CO2, lipase catalyzed syntheses, esterification, fructose palmitate, biocatalysts, lipase, Candida antarctica B
Objavljeno: 31.05.2012; Ogledov: 1650; Prenosov: 258
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Comparison of the esterification of fructose and palmitic acid in organic solvent and supercritical carbon dioxide
Saša Šabeder, Maja Leitgeb, Željko Knez, 2005, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Sugar fatty acid esters are nonionic surfactants, which are used for personal care products, cosmetic applications, and as emulsifiers for food. In recent years, enzymatic synthesis of sugar fatty acid esters is attracting keen attention as a new manufacturing method for future application. Reaction parameters of lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fructose fatty acid esters in organic solvent were optimized in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure. Optimum conditions for reaction performed in organic solvent at atmospheric pressure were 10% (wžw of substrates) of lipase from Candida antarctica B, 12.14% (wžw of reaction mixture) of molecular sieves at 60 C, and stirring rate of 600 rpm. Esterification of fructose and palmitic acid was performed insupercritical carbon dioxide with and without addition of cosolvent (organicsolvent) at 60 C. Effect of pressure on enzyme activity was studied.
Ključne besede: chemical processing, high pressure technology, supercritical CO2, esterification, organic solvent, lipase catalysed synthesis, fructose fatty esters, Candida antarctica B, enzyme activity
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1463; Prenosov: 61
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

Silica aerogels as support for lipase catalyzed esterifications at sub- and supercritical conditions
Zoran Novak, Maja Leitgeb, Vlasta Krmelj, Željko Knez, 2003, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The enzymes (lipases from Candida rugosa and porcine pancreas) were immobilized on silica aerogels by sol-gel procedure followed by supercritical drying with CO2. Such immobilized enzymes were used as biocatalysts for esterification in supercritical CO2 and near critical propane at 40 °C and 100 bar. It was found out that the initial reaction rates in propane rose two to three times in comparison with the same reaction, catalyzed by free lipase. SC CO2 deactivated the non-immobilized lipase in reaction mixture while with the immobilized enzyme the conversion was 35%. The initial reaction rates in propane were 20 times higher than in water medium due to the properties of propane as a medium for esterification of fatty acids.
Ključne besede: chemical processing, biotechnology, esterification, immobilization of enzymes, supercritial CO2, propane, lipases, supercritical CO2 drying
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1187; Prenosov: 17
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

Enzymatic fatty ester synthesis
Simona Pečnik, Željko Knez, 1992, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Fatty ester synthesis with immobilized 1,3-specific lipase from Mucor Miehei is described. 1,2-Isopropylidene glycerol was peoduced by condensation of glycerol with acetone was esterified with oleic acid in the presence of a Mucor Miehei lipaze (Lipozyme TM) to obtain 1,2 isopropylidene- 3-oleoyl glycerol. The effects of various process parameters (temperature and pressure)and various ratios (enzyme/substrate) have been investigated to determine optimal conditions for the esterification process. The highest conversion of oleic acid (80% w/w) was obtained at 55 oC and 57.057 bar, while the optimal addition of lipase to substrate was determined to be 0,096 g per gram of reaction mixture. The esterification can be modelled successfully as a reverse second order reaction. Thermodynamic properties of the reaction system at 55 oC and 0.057 bar were also determined. Activation energy was 20.82 kJ/mole, entropy of activation -0,26 kJ/(Kmole) and free energy of activation was 103.32 kJ/mole.
Ključne besede: chemical engineering, biotechnology, esterification, syntheses, esters, enzymes, lipase, Mucor miehei, reaction kinetics, reaction thermodynamics, 1, 2-isopropylidene-3-oleoyl glycerol
Objavljeno: 06.06.2012; Ogledov: 1476; Prenosov: 67
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