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SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF UNEMPLOYMENT
Eva Lorenčič, 2013, diplomsko delo

Opis: Unemployment negatively affects the government budget and inflicts costs on the unemployed individuals as well as on the society as a whole in many ways. The direct costs of unemployment for the state budget arise due to the benefits paid out to the unemployed, and due to foregone direct and indirect taxes. On the level of an individual, nonmonetary costs are a multiple of the monetary ones, which indicates that employment plays a central role in a person’s well-being. Unemployment has a spill-over effect on the society as a whole and affects not only the unemployed, but also the employed population, particularly in the areas experiencing high unemployment rates. We take the case study of Germany, the country often used as a quintessence of how to overcome the problem of massive unemployment. Before the four Hartz reforms, which were implemented in years 2003, 2004 and 2005, Germany was characterized as the »sick man of Europe« owing to its exploding levels of unemployment, dysfunctional labor market, unsustainable social budget, and rising public debt. As the reforms were put into force, the situation in the German labor market underwent a 360° turnaround and became portrayed as the »German economic miracle«. The true effects of the reforms fully transpired in the economic and financial crisis of 2008/2009, when most countries experienced escalating unemployment rates, while Germany kept them at bay. Studies show that flexible working-time arrangements and short-time work have played a major role in inhibiting lay-offs in German companies during the recent crisis, and hence in preventing a spike in unemployment rates, which we use as one of the points that validate our Model of employment. The government subsidies made it possible for companies to reduce the working hours of their employees instead of laying them off. An important feature of the German labor market is a comparatively high percentage of part-time workers (around 25% in years 2006–2011), which also explains the low unemployment rates Germany has been recording since the reforms were introduced. The reforms cut the amount and duration of unemployment benefits, which gave the unemployed more incentives to find a job. A negative aspect of the reform may be an increased divide between the core work force and the marginal workers, which intensifies social differences and is currently on the agenda of German politics. Also some researches stress the importance of social cohesion and that the risks and opportunities in the labor market should be more evenly distributed. In the accompanying explanations to the Model of employment, some of the successful measures of Germany’s Hartz reforms may be spotted, while at the same time we avoid the »mistakes« of these reforms, thus making sure that social differences among people would narrow down upon the real-life implementation of the Model. When the number of job vacancies sharply exceeds the number of unemployed, and when there are poor prospects of new job openings in the near future, the only viable solution to the problem of unemployment is to reduce the working hours of the existing employees. The Model of employment that we develop represents a possible solution to the problem of unemployment and thus addresses the need to reduce the costs of unemployment to the unemployed individual, to the state budget, and to the society as a whole. The crux of the Model is a re-distribution of the total number of workplaces and total annual working hours among the »new actively employed population«, which comprises all persons having the potential to become or stay employed or self-employed in a given year. The model allows for a flexible arrangement of working hours – from four and up to eight hours per employee per day. Our solution will release the working hours, make them available to the currently unemployed, and hence ensure a more equitable distribution of income and work load amongst the population. In addition, as the workers will be less tired and stressed-out, their productivity will in
Ključne besede: unemployment, labor force, labor market, part-time employment, full-time employment, labor market flexibility, costs of unemployment, Hartz reforms
Objavljeno: 30.08.2013; Ogledov: 1354; Prenosov: 123
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,23 MB)

4.
SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A WAY FOR APPROACHING SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY - SOLVING THE ISSUE OF SOCIAL INCLUSION IN BIH BY ENCOURAGING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP
Anita Šimundža, 2016, doktorska disertacija

Opis: SUMMARY Living in a time of materialism, when the ethical component of business is almost completely ignored, is the main challenge for all activists of different thinking, to offer ideas that can lead to new and important changes. Social entrepreneurship is an idea that has awakened much interest in recent decades, because it is based on different approaches of classical economic understanding. This concept in the cold logic of modern business brings warmth, a note of humanity and altruism, and contributes to the promotion of moral and ethical practices and standards. Initiatives of social entrepreneurship are always associated with humane ideas, aiming at the general social well-being, as opposed to traditional entrepreneurship, in which the profit is the primary goal and the main measure of success. Social entrepreneurship, as a model, in its ideological and practical function, aims to create a stable structure based on full utilization of human resources, offering new ways of resolving the numerous social and economic problems. A significant number of the population in Bosnia and Herzegovina is strongly affected by social exclusion. Among the most vulnerable are persons with disabilities, Roma and youth, while women in all groups are particulary vulnerable. The European Union practice shows that social entrepreneurship is a good instrument for eliminating poverty, social exclusion and unemployment. Compared to the European Union model, the potential for the development of social entrepreneurship is not being utilized enough in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bearing in mind these findings, the main objectives of this work is to explore and present theoretical approaches and concepts of social entrepreneurship and possible ways of overcoming social exclusion through social entrepreneurship, based on primary and secondary research. The strongest arguments for commitment to the development of social entrepreneurship in Bosnia and Herzegovina show facts: • Citizens of the Bosnia and Herzegovina recognize that entrepreneurship can contribute to the reduction of social problems, especially social exclusion. • The development of small and medium enterprises significantly influences the increase of social inclusion. The practical part included exploration of the needs for solving social exclusion, poverty and unemployment problems, and the possible ways of overcoming these problems through social entrepreneurship. Research of the situation and possibilities of development of social entrepreneurship included: 1. Survey with target groups, based on prepared questionnaire, which covered 400 unemployed persons from marginalized groups: women, youth, persons with disabilities and Roma, throughout Republic of Srpska (40 municipalities), in cooperation with non-governmental organizations and Employment Service of the Republic of Srpska. 2. Findings of survey with institutions, non-governmental organizations and small and medium enterprises Based on theoretical part of doctoral dissertation we confirm the sub-hypotheses: • H1.1: Human capital is the most important resource for achieving sustainable development goals; • H1.2: Gender is a significant predictor of socio-economic status of citizens, and • H1.5: By introducing special measures and support programs, it is possible to significantly improve the development of social entrepreneurship. Based on empirical research we partially confirm the sub-hypotheses: • H1.3: Citizens perceive entrepreneurship as a mechanism for overcoming social exclusion and • H1.4: Development of small and medium enterprises significantly influences the increase of social inclusion. In final, we partially confirm our main hypothesis H.1: Sustainable Community Development, viewed through the paradigm of social inclusion, is significantly associated with the development of social entrepreneurship.
Ključne besede: social entrepreneurship, social enterprises, employment, social exclusion, non-governmental organizations
Objavljeno: 01.06.2016; Ogledov: 760; Prenosov: 44
.pdf Celotno besedilo (18,11 MB)

5.
Organizational flexibility, employee security and organizational efficiency
Tatjana Kozjek, Marko Ferjan, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background: Literature defines different types of flexibility and security with regard to work. Regardless of which type of flexibility or security is discussed, the consequences for individuals, organizations or employers and society are significant. Purpose: The purpose of the research was to compare and analyse the correlation between the different types of flexibility and security in work and organizational efficiency. Methodology: Data was gathered using the Computer-Assisted Web Interview (CAWI) method. A link to an online questionnaire was e-mailed to randomly selected organisations across all economic sectors in Slovenia that had a published e-mail address, either in business directories or on a company website. We asked them to forward our e-mail to their employees. The correlation between different variables was used for data analysis. Results: The results of our research show that there is a low positive level of correlation between different types of flexibility and security in the context of work and also between different types of flexibility in work and organizational efficiency. The correlation between different types of security in work and organizational efficiency is positive and medium strong. Conclusion: It is recommended that the legislators be aware of the importance of their correlation with organizational efficiency when preparing legislative amendments regarding introduction of the flexibility and security in the field of work.
Ključne besede: flexibility, flexible employment contratcs, employee income security, Slovenia
Objavljeno: 04.04.2017; Ogledov: 210; Prenosov: 33
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,04 MB)
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6.
Empowerment of employees in gaining competitive advantage
Sonja Treven, Štefan Kajzer, 1999, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In the paper, the authors emanate from various types of structures of the enterprise whereby they focus their attention on the flexible form. They examine the possibilities to encourage the employees in achieving the business objectives in enterprises with a flexible organisational structure. They particularly deal with some of the more important aspects concerning the employees, as for example: job enrichment, self-managed work teams, creativity and gathering of ideas, the question of rewarding and recognizing the efforts of the staff. They conclude the paper by presenting the manner of recruiting and training as well as giving suggestions for creating "champions"in these enterprises.
Ključne besede: company, employment, competition, competitiveness, organizational structures, creativity
Objavljeno: 04.07.2017; Ogledov: 223; Prenosov: 31
.pdf Celotno besedilo (635,51 KB)
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7.
Human resource management in international organizations
Sonja Treven, 2001, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: In the paper, the author first presents various approaches to the management and recruitment of employees in subsidiaries that the company has established in different countries. Then, she turns her attention to the basic functions of international human resource management, among them recruitment and selection of new employees, development and training of employees, assessment of work efficiency, as well as remuneration of employees. As the expatriates are often given special attention by their work organizations, she concludes the paper with the description of the additional challanges occuring in the management of these employees.
Ključne besede: management, use of human resources, employment, international company, work performance, human potential, international organizations, company
Objavljeno: 04.07.2017; Ogledov: 357; Prenosov: 52
.pdf Celotno besedilo (545,95 KB)
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8.
Professional competences of graduates as a labour market mechanism for aligning business school curriculum reform with the Bologna declaration principles
Milan Jurše, Polona Tominc, 2008, kratki znanstveni prispevek

Opis: Higher education institutions in Europe have been recently faced with a rapidly changing external framework for developing new study programmes and their curricula. The main contribution of our paper is to provide a better insight into the skills and competences of business school graduates needed at the labour market, as seen by employers, graduates of business schools, and academics. The paper attempts to enhance our understanding of different aspects of curriculum revision by incorporating professional competences into the early stages of the curriculum development process. In this paper also the experience of the Faculty of Economics and Business from Slovenia, which has transformed its bachelor and master study programmes according to the principles set out in Bologna Declaration, is presented and discussed.
Ključne besede: employment, labor market, education, business schools, lifelong learning, Bologna declaration
Objavljeno: 04.07.2017; Ogledov: 210; Prenosov: 53
.pdf Celotno besedilo (287,08 KB)
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9.
Perceived gender equality in managerial positions in organizations
Polona Tominc, Urban Šebjan, Karin Širec, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background and Purpose: This research aims to achieve two main objectives: to investigate differences between male and female managers regarding the perceived gender equality in organizations and to analyze the gender differences in relationships among the perceived gender equality, the perceived satisfaction with employment position and career, the perceived satisfaction with work, and the perceived work-family conflict. Design/Methodology/Approach: The sample of research includes 82 managers in Slovenian organizations. In first stage, we analyzed with t-test differences between male and female regarding perceived gender equality in decision-making positions. In the next step we developed the conceptual models and used structural equational modeling (SEM), and analyzed differences between constructs in two conceptual models. Results: The research results show that female managers perceive gender equality in organizations in general to be significantly lower than males; furthermore, perceived gender equality is positively related to the perceived satisfaction with employment position and career as well as to the perceived satisfaction with work, but both relationships are significantly stronger for female managers. On the other hand female managers seems to cope more efficiently with the perceived work-family conflict since it has significantly different impact on female managers’ perceived satisfaction with work, as compared to the male managers. Conclusion: To achieve more gender equality within organizations and a reduction of the gender gap, the legislative initiatives cannot be successful without appropriate corporate strategy sets, which presents the framework for doing business and determines the internal working culture. The findings offer several policy, as well as business practice-oriented implications.
Ključne besede: gender balance, decision-making position, employment satisfaction, work satisfaction, organization, management, managerial positions, gender equality
Objavljeno: 06.07.2017; Ogledov: 390; Prenosov: 152
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1021,95 KB)
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10.
Training in diversity management
Sonja Treven, Urška Treven, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The labor force all around the world is becoming increasingly diverse. Thus, organizations that can manage employee diversity effectively gain a competitive advantage. In such organizations diversity training is a necessity. Diversity training helps managers understand and value individual differences and develop strong diagnostic skills. The paper explores various approaches to training, like awareness-based and skill-based diversity training. A special attention to potential problems that may occur in the process of diversity training is given.
Ključne besede: diversity management, training, employment, competitiveness, human resources, management
Objavljeno: 26.07.2017; Ogledov: 462; Prenosov: 143
.pdf Celotno besedilo (304,67 KB)
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