A new approach to rebates after Intel caseSandra Fišer Šobot
, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: Although heated debates are quite common in the law on abuses of dominant position, it is not an exaggeration to state that Intel case has generated an unusual storm of comments and discussions. In 2009, the European Commission fined Intel 1.06 billion % for abusing dominant position by granting exclusivity rebates. In 2014, the General Court rendered judgment in support of the European Commission's decision. In 2017, the Court of Justice of the European Union set aside that judgment and referred the case back to the General Court in order for it to examine Intel's arguments regarding the capacity of the rebates at issue to restrict competition. This long awaited ruling in the Intel case is so far one of the most important judgments regarding exclusivity rebates and Art. 102 TFEU enforcement. The paper addresses relevant issues and conclusions in relation to the exclusivity rebates. Additionally, the author attempts to assess possible effects and implications of the Courts of Justice's judgment.
Ključne besede: Art. 102 TFEU, abuse of dominant position, exclusivity rebates, the "as efficient competitor" test, effects-based approach
Objavljeno: 15.01.2021; Ogledov: 91; Prenosov: 6
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Combining ability and breeding potential of oilseed rape advanced lines for some of important quantitative traitsValiollah Rameeh
, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: Information on estimates of combining ability of the promising lines of breeding material is important for evolving higher yielding varieties of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). An experiment was conducted to quantitatively examine the genetic parameters of phenological traits, plant height, pods on main raceme, pods per plant and seed yield for eight oilseed rape genotypes using a half-diallel crosses. The result of the diallel analysis revealed significant mean squares of general and specific combining abilities (GCA and SCA) for all studied traits, indicating the importance of additive and non-additive genetic effects for these traits. On the other hand estimation of high narrow-sense heritability estimates for days to flowering, duration of flowering and pods on main raceme, indicated the prime importance of additive genetic effects for these traits. L420 and L401 with significant negative GCA effects for days to flowering and days to maturity were suitable for yielding early maturity combinations. L41, Zafar and L22 with significant positive GCA effects for seed yield were superior parents for increasing seed yield. The crosses with significant positive SCA effects for seed yield had at least one parent with significant positive GCA effects for this trait. The crosses including L41×L22, L41×LF2, Zafar×L22 and Zafar×L420 with seed yield of 3421.7, 3400, 3348.1 and 3311.3 kg ha-1 could be promising for determination of superior recombinants for high seed yield coupled with other growth characters in advanced generations of segregation.
Ključne besede: additive genetic effects, Brassica napus, degree of dominance, combining ability, heritability, oilseed rape, yield
Objavljeno: 10.10.2018; Ogledov: 627; Prenosov: 233
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Foreign insolvent debtorJorg Sladič
, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: Creditors in international trade are often faced with issues of an insolvent foreign debtor who often has property and assets in several states. In such a case creditors are faced with difficulties of international collective insolvency proceedings. The introductory parts of the article examines the standard questions like the question of a single, universal property of an individual or legal person and on the other hand the principles of territoriality and universality in public international law as far as the effects of foreign collective insolvency proceedings are concerned. The article then deals with issues of the centre of main interests as the point of contact and issues opened with the application of the lex concursus.
Ključne besede: private international law, insolvency law, principle of territoriality, principle of universality, principle of single universal assets and property, recognition of decisions of foreign courts rendered in collective insolvency proceedings, recognition of effects of a foreign collective insolvency proceedings, centre of main interests
Objavljeno: 01.08.2018; Ogledov: 415; Prenosov: 24
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INSTITUTIONAL SETTING AS A DETERMINANT OF ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN EUROPEAN TRANSITION COUNTRIESJelena Zvezdanović Lobanova
, 2017, doktorska disertacija
Opis: The aims of this dissertation are to analyse the interdependence between C-B M&As and the quality of the institutional setting and observe the economic effects of that nexus at the macroeconomic level in 22 European transition countries between 2000-2014. Our underlying hypothesis is that the progress and durability of institutional reforms are factors that have a crucial influence on the economic performance of C-B M&As in transition countries. The dynamic relationship between the economic effects of C-B M&As and institutional quality is investigated by using the system Generalized Method of Moments estimator. Since the potential benefits of foreign direct investment are determined by the institutional setup, we used different governance indicators in our calculations, both individually and in terms of their interaction with C-B M&As. With the help of our empirical analysis, we established which aspects of institutional setting have contributed most to causing the economic effects of C-B M&As, using their interaction terms with this type of FDI, so we could focus most attention on these areas.
Our results indicate that C-B M&As have a negative effect on GDP per capita in the initial period. This negative impact in the year of merger and acquisition could be explained by the rise in unemployment and the crowding-out of less efficient domestic companies which are not able to withstand the competitive pressure in the domestic market. The influence of one-year lagged C-B M&As is positive and significant, suggesting that this form of FDI might have a delayed effect. However, this type of FDI does not have a positive economic impact on host transition countries in the long-run because it might be motivated by rent-seeking interests. We show that the overall quality of the institutional setting (measured with the help of the EBRD indices of structural reforms and World Bank’s Governance Indicators) is important for GDP per capita in the short and long term. On the other hand, its interaction terms with C-B M&As are negative but not significant in current period. All governance dimensions stimulate GDP per capita of host transition countries. Our findings indicate that the higher level of C-B M&As with a negative impact offsets the positive effect of the control of corruption and the rule of law on economic growth both in short and long run. Voice and accountability were found to be important for explaining an FDI’s influence on GDP per capita.
In terms of the influence on domestic investment, we have found that contemporaneous M&As have a crowding-out effect, while the influence of their lagged level has a crowding-in effect. Their long term impact is also negative and significant (when controlling for overall institutional quality index and separate governance indicators), suggesting that foreign investors reduce the competition on the domestic market over time. We show that foreign investors may be motivated by rent-seeking interests based on the fact that the interdependence of C-B M&As and the overall quality of the institutional setting had a negative effect on domestic investment. We have not found evidence to support our hypothesis that overall institutional reform (as well as the speed of implementation) and its interaction with C-B M&As encourages domestic investment in European transition countries. We have found that political stability has a positive effect on domestic investment and is the only significant variable of all the institutional factors. This means this governance indicator is a crucial determinant of domestic investment in transition countries. The only significant interaction terms with a negative effect on domestic investment, are between C-B M&As and the Rule of Law and overall institutional quality. Political Stability (positive coefficient) and the interaction terms between C-B M&As and Rule of Law and overall institutional quality (both negative coefficients) have a significant impact on domestic i
Ključne besede: the quality of the institutional setting, C-B M&As, transition countries, economic effects, governance
Objavljeno: 28.06.2018; Ogledov: 1008; Prenosov: 63
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A microtremor HVSR study of the seismic site effects in the area of the town of Brežice (SE Slovenia)Andrej Gosar
, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: The wider region of Brežice is one of the most seismically active areas of Slovenia. The most damaging earthquake occurred in 1917, when Brežice was hit by an ML=5.7 earthquake that had an VIII MSK maximum intensity. Seismic site effects due to Quaternary sediments can be expected in the whole area of the town. Since there is a lack of boreholes and geophysical data to assess the site effects, the microtremor (ambient vibrations) horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method was applied at 113 free-field measuring points. In general, clear spectral peaks were obtained, but there were also examples of flat spectral ratios indicating a low impedance contrast between the sediments and the bedrock. A map of the sediment resonance frequency was drawn, which shows a frequency range of 1–15 Hz. In the southern part of the town higher frequencies correspond to the thin sediments (the Brežice terrace and the middle Sava terrace) and the high HVSR peak amplitudes indicate a great impedance contrast with the Sarmatian and Badenian bedrock. The northern part is characterized by very low frequencies, indicating thick sediments (Plio-Quaternary gravel) and a small impedance contrast with Pontian marl. The transition between the high and low frequencies is relatively steep. In addition, measurements were performed in 12 characteristic houses to assess the longitudinal and transverse building frequencies. The established building frequency range of 5–10 Hz indicates some areas in the southern part of the town where there is a potential danger of soil-structure resonance. Two buildings show direct evidence of a potential soil-structure resonance. According to this study, more pronounced seismic site effects are expected in the southern part of Brežice.
Ključne besede: ambient vibrations, microtremors, horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR), seismic site effects, soil-structure resonance
Objavljeno: 06.06.2018; Ogledov: 647; Prenosov: 102
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Thinking in options – finding and evaluating alternativesEdeltraud Günther
, Daria Meyr
, 2016, samostojni znanstveni sestavek ali poglavje v monografski publikaciji
Opis: After this general observation of decision processes we want to have a look at two decision making situations, that necessitate these processes, more detailed: Investment decisions are on the agenda for small and medium-sized companies, while acquisition decisions are more relevant in larger companies.
Ključne besede: decision-making, investment decisions, acquisition decisions, monetary assessment, effects, economic-ecological net effect
Objavljeno: 11.05.2018; Ogledov: 507; Prenosov: 33
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An analysis of interaction effects of China–South Korea and China–Australia FTAs and the expanding TPPSun Yuhong
, Mu Yifei
, Jun Yang
, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: On 5 October 2015, the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) led by the U.S. was signed. Already, 12 countries1 have joined the agreement, but China has not. Thus, lots of research has focused on the negative effect of the TPP on China’s foreign trade. On the other hand, China is moving forward in its own efforts to establish bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) and free trade zones. In June 2015, China-South Korea and China-Australia signed bilateral FTAs which went into effect in December 2015. Several questions were raised: Since South Korea and Australia are the major trade partners in the Pacific area and the bilateral FTAs will be effective before the TPP, will these FTAs’ positive effects on China’s foreign trade offset some of the negative effects of the TPP? If China and the U.S. adopted a competitive trade policy, which countries would benefit? If China and the U.S. adopted a cooperative trade policy, how would the trade value and economic welfare change? This paper simulates and analyses the mutual effects of China-South Korea and China-Australia FTAs and the enlarging TPP using the computable general equilibrium model. The major conclusions drawn suggest that China-South Korea and China-Australia FTAs will significantly offset the TPP’s negative effect on China’s foreign trade. If China is not included, the U.S. economic benefit from the TPP will be limited. The economic welfare for a country like Australia, which joined both the bilateral FTA and the TPP, will be increased the most. In the long run, China joining the TPP would be the most beneficial decision for its national interest. However, if the TPP cannot be approved by the US congress, the U.S.’s economic indicators and export would be decreasing sharply. China’s economy and export will benefit from FTAs.
Ključne besede: China-South Korea FTA, China-Australia FTA, TPP, interaction effects
Objavljeno: 03.05.2018; Ogledov: 509; Prenosov: 232
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Reduction of sludge volume in waste waters at the end of the drinking water treatment processRebeka Fakin
, 2018, magistrsko delo
Opis: Water treatment at Seierstad drinking water treatment plant is done by chemical coagulation using aluminum-based coagulant. The quality of the drinking water source – Lake Farris, has decreased throughout the years, that is why more and more particles, organic matter and dissolved minerals must be removed. That contributes to the volume of sludge being produced at the end of the process. The main objective of the assignment is to reduce sludge volume by coagulation and flocculation in the sedimentation basins using a coagulant/flocculent. In order to choose the right coagulant tests have been performed in the laboratory and on the actual process. The laboratory analyses showed great potential and one of the coagulants has been chosen and tested on the actual process. The testing was followed up for the entire summer of 2016 and then compared to the year before. We have been following the pH and Al3+ content in the water being released back to the environment and visibility in the top water layer in the sedimentation basin. Cost analysis, including the cost of chemicals and electricity usage, has been done. The sludge reduction was successful, and it was approximately 49% less than the year before.
Ključne besede: Water treatment, lake Farris, sludge treatment using coagulation and flocculation, effects of aluminum on the environment.
Objavljeno: 09.03.2018; Ogledov: 712; Prenosov: 78
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Coopetition effect determinantsJoanna Cygler
, Katarzyna Dębkowska
, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: Background and Goal: The article is aimed at conducting an empirical analysis of the value and significance of coopetitors’ attributes thanks to which coopetition, which is a combination of cooperation and competition between competitors, generates a substantial corporate profit. Four major competitors’ attributes have been analysed: its size, geographical scope, market and technological position. The research also includes the Porter’s value chain.
Design/ Methodology/Approach: The survey has been conducted on a sample of 235 high- tech companies operating in Poland and involved in coopetition. The sample is representative. The data have been collected at interviews with company top executives or owners. The research applies the method of classification trees, which, thanks to diagrams, sequentially divides the examined data space into classes (spaces) of similar properties. The assessment of the effect of coopetition, including its variants, made by the examined company served as a dependent qualitative variable. Four coopetitor’s attributes and their variants were assumed as explanatory variables (predictors) affecting the assessment of cooperation.
Results: The results of research indicated the necessity for an accurate competitor’s profile selection. The significance of each of the four attributes may be different depending on the undertaken areas of cooperation with a competitor. The value of all the attributes of competitors is also diverse depending on the area of cooperation. A selected competitor’s profile with regard to the four analysed attributes may become a stimulant to generate benefits in one area, while in another area it may become an inhibitor.
Conclusions: So far, the selection of a coopetition partner has been treated universally, without scrutinizing on some specific needs in relation to the area of cooperation. The selection of an appropriate coopetitor’s profile will allow for the cost reduction in search of appropriate candidates for cooperation and in relations management.
Ključne besede: coopetition, effects, competitor’s attributes, classification trees
Objavljeno: 29.11.2017; Ogledov: 470; Prenosov: 108
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Opportunities for the applications of FMEA Model in logistics processes in Bulgarian enterprisesMaria Vodenicharova
, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: The article explores the use of FMEA method in the logistics processes in manufacturing plants in Bulgaria. The surveyed enterprises have a system ISO 9001 and apply different methods of analysis and assessment of logistics processes. The purpose of this study is to present a model for improving the reliability of logistics processes through the FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) method.
An inquiry among 14 organizations in the implementation of FMEA was conducted. The results show that FMEA is not used for assessment in logistics processes and provides useful insights for decision-making to improve the reliability of supply. A framework based on the survey is presented for determining the reliability of logistics processes in manufacturing plants. The study demonstrates the applicability of the method in logistics processes and the role FMEA can play in assessing logistics processes.
Ključne besede: failure mode effects and analysis (FMEA), logistics process, quality
Objavljeno: 17.11.2017; Ogledov: 1013; Prenosov: 330
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