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1.
Sarcopenia parameters in active older adults : an eight-year longitudinal study
Kaja Teraž, Uroš Marušič, Miloš Kalc, Boštjan Šimunič, Primož Pori, Bruno Grassi, Stefano Lazzer, Marco Vicenzo Narici, Mojca Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Pietro Enrico Di Prampero, Carlo Reggiani, Angelina Passaro, Gianni Biolo, Mladen Gasparini, Rado Pišot, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background Sarcopenia is a common skeletal muscle syndrome that is common in older adults but can be mitigated by adequate and regular physical activity. The development and severity of sarcopenia is favored by several factors, the most influential of which are a sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity. The aim of this observational longitudinal cohort study was to evaluate changes in sarcopenia parameters, based on the EWGSOP2 definition in a population of active older adults after eight years. It was hypothesized that selected active older adults would perform better on sarcopenia tests than the average population. Methods The 52 active older adults (22 men and 30 women, mean age: 68.4±5.6 years at the time of their first evaluation) participated in the study at two time points eight-years apart. Three sarcopenia parameters were assessed at both time points: Muscle strength (handgrip test), skeletal muscle mass index, and physical performance (gait speed), these parameters were used to diagnose sarcop0enia according to the EWGSOP2 definition. Additional motor tests were also performed at follow-up measurements to assess participants’ overall fitness. Participants self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior using General Physical Activity Questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up measurements. Results In the first measurements we did not detect signs of sarcopenia in any individual, but after 8 years, we detected signs of sarcopenia in 7 participants. After eight years, we detected decline in ; muscle strength (-10.2%; p<.001), muscle mass index (-5.4%; p<.001), and physical performance measured with gait speed (-28.6%; p<.001). Similarly, self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior declined, too (-25.0%; p=.030 and −48.5%; p<.001, respectively). Conclusions Despite expected lower scores on tests of sarcopenia parameters due to age-related decline, participants performed better on motor tests than reported in similar studies. Nevertheless, the prevalence of sarcopenia was consistent with most of the published literature. Trial registration The clinical trial protocol was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04899531
Ključne besede: elderly, physical activities, sedentary behavior, skeletal muscle disorder, sarcopenia
Objavljeno v DKUM: 25.03.2024; Ogledov: 119; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,47 MB)
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2.
The external bias-dependent electric field at hole-injecting electrode/[alpha]-NPD junction and its relationship to Gaussian disordered interface states
Bruno Cvikl, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: An alternative interpretation of two different sets of published temperature-dependent current-voltage a-NPD (i.e. N,N'-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,11-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine) organic semiconductor data is presented. The measurements are described in terms of the hole drift current density expressed with two parameters: the electric field at the hole-injecting interface, Eint, and, ?max, the hole mobility determined by the measured current density at the maximum value of the externally applied electric field, Ea, in a given experiment. The former parameter, depending on the contact résistance, may be a function of Ea but the latter is Ea independent, The fixed value of Eint signifies the occurrence of the space charge limited current, SCLC, within the electrode/a-NPD structures and the contact is ohmic. Then, the calculated weak bias-dependent hole drift mobility, a function of Eint, equals the well%known exponential bias-dependent mobility, and saturates. The data not displaying SCLC characteristics are used for the calculation of Eint dependence on the applied field, Ea. It is shown that the quasi-ohmic contacts cause Eint to become a strong double-valued function of the externally applied electric field, Ea, described in terms of the distorted, inverted, high order parabola. The corresponding bias-dependent hole drift mobility is non-exponential and evolves on a considerably lower level than in SCLC cases. It is found that a sufficiently increased Ea alters the quasi-ohmic contact/a-NPD region into the ohmic one. A simple model of a thin, net hole charged, electrode/a-NPD interface enables the relationship between the deduced interfacial electric field, Eint, and the Ea dependent Gaussian width, as well as the energy shift of its peak along the negative binding energy is to be investigated. The currentvoltage method appears to be a helpful expedient for the investigation of the electric field at hole-injecting electrode/organic interfaces.
Ključne besede: electrode/organic electric field, contact affected hole mobility, organic interface disorder parameters
Objavljeno v DKUM: 22.12.2023; Ogledov: 452; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1004,22 KB)
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3.
Common and specific large-scale brain changes in major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain : a transdiagnostic multimodal meta-analysis of structural and functional MRI studies
Felix Brandl, Benedikt Weise, Satja Mulej Bratec, Nazia Jassim, Daniel Hoffmann Ayala, Teresa Bertram, Markus Ploner, Christian Sorg, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders (ANX), and chronic pain (CP) are closely-related disorders with both high degrees of comorbidity among them and shared risk factors. Considering this multi-level overlap, but also the distinct phenotypes of the disorders, we hypothesized both common and disorder-specific changes of large-scale brain systems, which mediate neural mechanisms and impaired behavioral traits, in MDD, ANX, and CP. To identify such common and disorder-specific brain changes, we conducted a transdiagnostic, multimodal meta-analysis of structural and functional MRI-studies investigating changes of gray matter volume (GMV) and intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of large-scale intrinsic brain networks across MDD, ANX, and CP. The study was preregistered at PROSPERO (CRD42019119709). 320 studies comprising 10,931 patients and 11,135 healthy controls were included. Across disorders, common changes focused on GMV-decrease in insular and medial-prefrontal cortices, located mainly within the so-called default-mode and salience networks. Disorder-specific changes comprised hyperconnectivity between defaultmode and frontoparietal networks and hypoconnectivity between limbic and salience networks in MDD; limbic network hyperconnectivity and GMV-decrease in insular and medial-temporal cortices in ANX; and hypoconnectivity between salience and default-mode networks and GMV-increase in medial temporal lobes in CP. Common changes suggested a neural correlate for comorbidity and possibly shared neuro-behavioral chronification mechanisms. Disorder-specific changes might underlie distinct phenotypes and possibly additional disorder-specific mechanisms.
Ključne besede: human threat behaviour, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, chronic pain, structural MRI, functional MRI
Objavljeno v DKUM: 18.08.2023; Ogledov: 325; Prenosov: 24
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,04 MB)
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4.
Symmetry breaking and structure of a mixture of nematic liquid crystals and anisotropic nanoparticles
Marjan Krašna, Matej Cvetko, Milan Ambrožič, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Orientational ordering of a homogeneous mixture of uniaxial liquid crystalline(LC) molecules and magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) is studied using the Lebwohl-Lasher lattice model. We consider cases where NPs tend to be oriented perpendicularly to LC molecules due to elastic forces. We study domain-type configurations of ensembles, which are quenched from the isotropic phase. We show that for large enough concentrations of NPs the long range uniaxial nematic ordering is replaced by short range order exhibiting strong biaxiality. This suggests that the impact of NPs on orientational ordering of LCs for appropriate concentrations of NPs is reminiscent to the influence of quenched random fields which locally enforce a biaxial ordering.
Ključne besede: liquid crystals, nanoparticles, disorder, orientational order, quenched disorder, symmetry breaking
Objavljeno v DKUM: 03.08.2017; Ogledov: 1375; Prenosov: 363
.pdf Celotno besedilo (447,84 KB)
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5.
Field induced memory effects in random nematics
Amid Ranjkesh Siahkal, Milan Ambrožič, Samo Kralj, T. J. Sluckin, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We studied numerically external field induced memory effects in randomly perturbed nematic liquid crystals. Random anisotropy nematic-type lattice model was used. The impurities imposing orientational disorder were randomly spatially distributed with the concentration p below the percolation threshold. Simulations were carried for finite temperatures, where we varied p, interaction strength between LC molecules, and impurities and external field B. In the {B, T} plane we determined lines separating short range—quasi long range and quasi long range—long range order. Furthermore, crossover regime separating external field and random field dominated regime was estimated. We calculated remanent nematic ordering in samples at B = 0 as a function of the previously experienced external field strength B.
Ključne besede: liquid crystal, topological defects, random disorder
Objavljeno v DKUM: 14.06.2017; Ogledov: 1178; Prenosov: 332
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,15 MB)
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6.
Mobbing in Slovenia : prevalence, mobbing victim characteristics, and the connection with post-traumatic stress disorder
Damijan Mumel, Sanja Jan, Sonja Treven, Domen Malc, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: An increasing number of organizations face the problem of mobbing, which represents a serious, widespread problem with numerous consequences for victims, organizations, and society. We also recognize the connection this phenomenon has with the emergence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD poses one of the most critical consequences for victims of mobbing, who mostly consist of employees at lower organizational levels. Our research focuses on the prevalence of mobbing in Slovenia, its correlation to PTSD, and some differences in the subjective and objective assessments of being exposed to mobbing. We found that the prevalence of mobbing in Slovenia can be compared to some previous assessments as well as data from other countries. Among the study´s participants, 24% could be classified as regular victims of mobbing. For the first time, we link mobbing with PTSD using a Slovenian sample. We also recorded some interesting differences between subjective and objective assessments of mobbing, thereby indicating the importance of subjective conceptualizations of mobbing acts, which should be investigated in greater detail in future research.
Ključne besede: mobbing, post-traumatic stress disorder, prevalence, subjective and objective assessment, workplace health
Objavljeno v DKUM: 03.04.2017; Ogledov: 1535; Prenosov: 184
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,55 MB)
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7.
Perceived neighbourhood social disorder and attitudes toward feeling safe in Sarajevo
Elmedin Muratbegović, Fahrudin Memić, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: In this article, the authors examine how fear of crime levels vary depending upon the degree of quality of living conditions within neighbourhoods. Additionally, the intervening mechanisms that link the degree of living quality with the level of fear of crime within neighbourhoods of Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina will be explored. Design/Methods/Approach: This article shows the impact which neighbourly relations and social (dis) organization have on citizens’ perceptions of the so-called fear of crime. In order to measure the fear of crime in general, the authors relied on Van der Wurff’s model which has already been widely used in criminology and which is based on six vignettes describing six different social situations. The authors used a multi-stage random probability method to select a representative sample of households living in urban zones of Sarajevo. The sample population (N = 400) consisted of adult (18 years or older) inhabitants of urban areas comprising Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Findings: The Neighbourhood Disorder and Fear of Crime models indicate that welldeveloped social networks have a significant impact on feeling safe within Sarajevo’s neighbourhoods. Research Limitations/Implications: The most serious objection that can be raised with regard to this survey is the application of the interview as the only data collection technique. Most certainly, the inclusion of other techniques (e.g. focus groups) and methods would achieve more valid results. Practical implications: From the perspectives of practical implications, fear of crime can negatively impact citizens’ lives, and it is important to prevent this phenomenon in our communities, through everyday police activities and activities of other institutions of formal and informal social control. Originality/Value: The incidence and perceptions of safety in Sarajevo has become linked with perceived problems of social stability, moral consensus, and the collective informal control processes that underpin the social order of neighborhoods.
Ključne besede: fear of crime, neighborhood, social disorder, risk of crime, safety feeling, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Objavljeno v DKUM: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 1149; Prenosov: 59
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8.
Stochastic resonance in soft matter systems : combined effects of static and dynamic disorder
Matjaž Perc, Marko Gosak, Samo Kralj, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We study the impact of static and dynamic disorder on the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) in a representative soft matter system. Due to their extreme susceptibility to weak perturbations, soft matter systems appear to be excellent candidates for the observation of SR. Indeed, we derive generic SR equations from a polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal (LC) cell, which is a typical soft matter representative constituting one of the basic components in several electro-optic applications. We generalize these equations further in order to study an even broader class of qualitatively different systems, especially disclosing the influence of different types of static disorder and interaction ranges amongst LC molecules on the SR response. We determine the required conditions for the observation of SR in the examined system, and moreover, reveal that a random field type static disorder yields qualitatively different responses with respect to random dilution, random bond and spin glass universality classes. In particular, while the latter three decrease the level of dynamic disorder (Gaussian noise) warranting the optimal response, the former evokes exactly the opposite effect, hence increasing the optimal noise level that is needed to resonantly fine-tune the system's response in accordance with the weak deterministic electric field. These observations are shown to be independent of the system size and range of interactions, thus implying their general validity and potentially wide applicability also within other similar settings. We argue that soft matter systems might be particularly adequate as a base for different SR-based sensitive detectors and thus potent candidates for additional theoretical as well as experimental research in the presently outlined direction.
Ključne besede: dynamic systems, stochastic processes, stochastic resonance, nonlinear dynamical systems, soft-matter systems, static disorder, dynamic disorder
Objavljeno v DKUM: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 1927; Prenosov: 83
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9.
The influence of disorder on thermotropic nematic liquid crystals phase behavior
Vlad Popa-Nita, Ivan Gerlič, Samo Kralj, 2009, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: We review the theoretical research on the influence of disorder on structure and phase behavior of condensed matter system exhibiting continuous symmetry breaking focusing on liquid crystal phase transitions. We discuss the main properties of liquid crystals as adequate systems in which several open questions with respect to the impact of disorder on universal phase and structural behavior could be explored. Main advantages of liquid crystalline materials and different experimental realizations of random field-type disorder imposed on liquid crystal phases are described.
Ključne besede: liquid crystals, random fields, phase transition, disorder, nematic structures
Objavljeno v DKUM: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 2282; Prenosov: 323
.pdf Celotno besedilo (864,80 KB)
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10.
Competition between local disordering and global ordering fields in nematic liquid crystals
Matej Cvetko, Milan Ambrožič, Samo Kralj, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We study the influence of external electric or magnetic field B on orientational ordering of nematic liquid crystals or of other rod-like objects (e.g. nanotubes immersed in a liquid) in the presence of random anisotropy field type of disorder. The Lebwohl-Lasher lattice type of semi-microscopic approach is used at zero temperature. Therefore, results are valid well below the transition into the isotropic phase. We calculate the correlation function of systems as a function of B, concentration p of impurities imposing random anisotropy field disorder, the disorder strength W and system dimensionality (2D and 3D systems). In order to probe memory effects we calculate correlation length ▫$xi$▫ for random and homogeneous initial configurations. We determine the crossover fields Bc(p) separating roughly the ordered and disordered regime. Memory effects are apparent only in the latter case, i.e. for B < Bc.
Ključne besede: disorder, Imry-Ma theorem, liquid crystals, memory effect, orientational order
Objavljeno v DKUM: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 1764; Prenosov: 336
.pdf Celotno besedilo (747,18 KB)
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