DISCOURSE ANALYSIS IN TRANSLATINGMarjetka Cvetko
, 2012, diplomsko delo
Opis: The study of translation is very young and has no unified theory. There is no uniform definition of an ideal translation. Aspects affecting translation are too numerous to consider them all. Up to the present many sciences have influenced its development and theory to a great extent, they changed, added to it and improved it. Text linguistics contributed to translation too, refuted the concept of a sentence-for-sentence or even word-for-word translation and focused on treating a text as a whole. This young discipline changed the perspective of text analysing, it moved from focusing on text producing, style or text type to its structure, it analyses genres, the elements texts are constructed of and the ties linking them into logical, whole units. Another approach to text analysing developed within the framework of systemic functional linguistics referred to as discourse analysis that investigates textuality according to linguistic resources such as reference, repetition conjunction etc. creating cohesive ties between linguistic items (Martin, 1992:3; Halliday and Hasan, 1995:2-4). In this graduation thesis reference to human participants was researched in theory and practice using the example of a text in English and its Slovene translation and the results show that the knowledge of differences or resemblances in achieving cohesion in English and Slovene can contribute to better translating between those two languages and makes it easier for the reader or receiver of the translation to understand it in one’s mother language.
Ključne besede: translating, text, text linguistics, discourse analysis, cohesion, reference, participant identification
Objavljeno: 12.06.2012; Ogledov: 1443; Prenosov: 114
Celotno besedilo (428,06 KB)
Annotating discourse markers in spontaneous speech corpora on an example for the SlovenianDarinka Verdonik
, Matej Rojc
, Marko Stabej
, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: Speech-to-speech translation technology has difficulties processing elements of spontaneity in conversation. We propose a discourse marker attribute in speech corpora to help overcome some of these problems. There have already been some attempts to annotate discourse markers in speech corpora. However, as there is no consistency on what expressions count as discourse markers, we have to reconsider how to set a framework for annotating, and, in order to better understand what we gain by introducing a discourse marker category, we have to analyse their characteristics and functions in discourse. This is especially important for languages such as Slovenian where no or little research on the topic of discourse markers has been carried out. The aims of this paper are to present a scheme for annotating discourse markers based on the analysis of a corpus of telephone conversations in the tourism domain in the Slovenian language, and to give some additional arguments based on the characteristics and functions of discourse markers that confirm their special status in conversation.
Ključne besede: discourse markers, speech corpora, annotating, conversation, discourse analysis, speech-to-speech translation, spontaneous speech, Slovenian language
Objavljeno: 31.05.2012; Ogledov: 971; Prenosov: 14
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DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF POLITICAL SPEECHMonika Mešnjak
, 2012, diplomsko delo
Opis: Nowadays, research on political speeches has become an important subject of linguistic studies. Discourse presents a language above the sentence or above the clause. Functional approach to discourse analysis is an effective way of determining the basic characteristics of political speech. Its purpose is to perceive language as a social practice. Language users do not function in isolation, but rather in a set of cultural, social, and psychological composition. Therefore discourse analysis must focus on how politicians think and consequently design their speech. In order to achieve this, metafunctions of language must be determined, as well as other functional components, which together combine the systemic functional linguistics. Political speeches are also known for their use of figures of speech, such as euphemisms, substitution, and metaphors, and other devices of language structures, for instance cohesion, the rule of three, and parallelism. This is why discourse analysis is a useful tool for translators and interpretors. Translating political speech is an important, even crucial part of spreading the discourse across individual language barriers, making it available to international audiences, giving it greater power and influence, and thus reaching more people.
Ključne besede: political speech, discourse analysis, process, metafunctions, translation
Objavljeno: 17.09.2012; Ogledov: 1257; Prenosov: 65
Celotno besedilo (1,19 MB)
CODE-SWITCHING IN COMMENTS ON SLOVENE INTERNET JOURNALISTIC ARTICLESAndreja Krošelj
, 2015, diplomsko delo
Opis: Code-switching is one of the possible linguistic outcomes in a bilingual/multilingual environment. Despite the lack of consensus among linguists about terminology definition, most agree on the fundamental difference between borrowing and code-switching; the latter requiring a complete switch to L2. This diploma paper discusses code-switching in comments on Slovene Internet journalistic articles. In the empirical section, forty-five comments on twenty-five Slovene Internet journalistic articles were analysed. The research had two main objectives; the first one was to establish which language contact phenomena the examples represent according to various definitions, and to determine terminology used in further analysis with its accompanying definitions. The second goal was to discover characteristics of code-switching in Internet comments, including listing the topics most frequently commented when using code-switching, and languages commentators have switch to, naming the reasons for switching, and describing grammatical characteristics of switches. The results have shown that the line between borrowing and intrasentential code-switching is not always clear cut. Intersentential code-switching has proven to be the most frequent type of switching. Music, politics and entertainment industry are topics most frequently commented by using code-switching. English being lingua franca of the Internet has proven to be also the language commentators most frequently switched to. Switches, often triggered by the topic and/or style of writing of the commented texts, communicate something beyond the superficial meaning of their words. In most cases, more than one reason for such behaviour can be assigned to an individual example. Grammatical analysis has shown that comments, often written in Netspeak, possess many grammatical features of spoken discourse.
Ključne besede: code-switching, borrowing, Internet comments, bilingualism, Netspeak, grammar of spoken discourse
Objavljeno: 13.10.2015; Ogledov: 462; Prenosov: 71
Celotno besedilo (2,04 MB)
Pragmatic functions of Christian expressions in spoken discourseDarinka Verdonik
, Zdravko Kačič
, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: Different kinds of pragmatic expressions in spoken discourse, such as discourse markers, interjections, topic orientation markers, pragmatic deictics, general extenders, etc., have attracted the attention of researchers over recent decades. However, expressions that have their origins within religions have not as yet been studied from the pragmatic perspective, even though in everyday conversation they are used in non-religious contexts and content-free manners more often than within a religious context. The present study is based on the GOS Slovenian reference speech corpus, and covers the more common Christian expressions used in the corpus data, namely: bog "God", bože "God", marija "Mary", madona "Madonna", jezus "Jesus", hudič "Devil", vrag "Devil". The study attempts to highlight the contexts in which these expressions are used, as well as the pragmatic functions they perform.
Ključne besede: Slovene, religious expressions, Christian vocabulary, speech, discourse, attitude, corpus linguistics
Objavljeno: 30.12.2015; Ogledov: 420; Prenosov: 3
Celotno besedilo (140,73 KB)
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An Analysis of Language and Gestures in Political DiscourseAleksandra Premužič
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: Politicians have always used language accompanied by gestures to convince people that they are the best to lead them. The main aim of this thesis is to examine how verbal and nonverbal elements are connected in political discourse. More precisely, the study presented in the thesis examines how language and gestures are used by President Barack Obama and Borut Pahor and compare their use of gestures in their speeches. In the theoretical part we deal with verbal communication, nonverbal communication, rhetoric, gestures, political discourse and personalities of the president Pahor and the president Obama. The study that follows contains an analysis of two videos of Borut Pahor and two of Barack Obama. Screen shots from the video were made to see which gestures they use in different speeches. In total 16 gestures were examined for each video and for each of the gesture we noted what presidents were saying and which persuasive appeals of rhetoric they were using. The analysis shows that when President Obama and Pahor talk about similar topics they use similar gestures. The analysis also shows that gestures used in their speeches accompany all three lines of argument in rhetoric: ethos and pathos and also logos.
Ključne besede: Key words: gestures, language, political discourse, Borut Pahor, Barack Obama
Objavljeno: 21.03.2016; Ogledov: 500; Prenosov: 73
Celotno besedilo (2,15 MB)
Key word analysis of discourses in Slovene speechIztok Kosem
, Darinka Verdonik
, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: One of the aspects of speech that remains under-researched is the internal variety of speech, i. e. the differences and similarities between different types of speech. The paper aims to contribute to filling this gap in research by making a comparison between different discourses of Slovene spontaneous speech, focusing on the use of vocabulary. The key word analysis (Scott 1997), conducted on a million-word corpus of spoken Slovene, was used to identify lexical items and groups of lexical items typical of a particular spoken discourse, or common to different types of spoken discourse. The results indicate that the presence or absence of a particular word class in the key word list can be a good indicator of a type of spoken discourse, or discourses.
Ključne besede: corpus analysis, media discourse, private discourse, official discourse, spoken language, Slovene, key words
Objavljeno: 17.05.2017; Ogledov: 124; Prenosov: 8
Celotno besedilo (142,91 KB)
The Linguistic and Discursive Construction of Gender and Sexuality in the Translation of English TextsBarbara Majcenovič Kline
, 2016, magistrsko delo
Opis: Studies show that our ideas of gender and sexuality are closely linked with the language that is used to define and describe these two notions. It has been further proven that there is a very close relationship between issues related to sexuality and concepts such as gender, (political) power, exploitation, supremacy and mobbing, to name but a few. Social, cultural, political, historical and other discussions regarding questions such as what sexuality is and what is permissible, acceptable and even “normal”, are inevitably part of linguistic discourse.
In this MA thesis I thus research and analyze the complexity and multifacetedness of the relationship between language, discourse, gender and sexuality in the translations of English texts. I focus on the translations of texts which could be considered ambiguous in regards to expressing gender. This refers to the co-dependence between the source text, male or female translator and culture, as well as the broader circumstances that influence the translation or target text.
In the first part of the thesis I focus on the theoretical background and critical insights into the relationships between language, gender and sexuality. The next stage comprises a comparison of English texts from various media sources (classical and electronic) on both linguistic and discursive levels, with the translations of these texts into Slovene, Croatian and German provided by future translators.
The second part of the thesis, the research, comprises two parts: first, I am interested in how these texts and their translations are dealt with by the students – future translators – from four faculties in Maribor, Graz, Zagreb and Split.
I am further interested in the level of the respondents’ awareness regarding the appropriate use of politically correct expressions, which I assume they are able to use accordingly in their translations.
The second part of the research presents data collected based on the questionnaire, which was answered by future translators immediately after completion of the survey. Since the students come from different backgrounds, I am mostly interested in the reasons and possible factors that have influenced their translation choices (of individual words, expressions (terms), phrases, etc.).
There are two general assumptions based on the literature review and the analysis of the translations and answers to the questionnaires provided by the future translators.
The first one refers to the target text – translation – which, in most cases, depends on the current culture, social environment and time period. The emphasis is placed on the co-dependence between the source text, translator (male or female) as well as culture and other broader background circumstances which influence the translation or the target text.
This assumption emphasizes the importance of translators possessing a high level of knowledge and intercultural awareness. The latter was noticable in the translations under research, yet we are still, as regards politically correct expressions, in the process of introducing norms and guidelines on a higher, state level, which might be later generally applied.
The second general assumption refers to cultural, social, political, historical and ideological paradigms which annul the ideal of a translation as embodying or reflecting neutral, impartial linguistic and discursive text fidelity.
From the translations into three languages, I was able to establish that there are no ideal translations. Furthermore, it was extremely difficult to find gender neutral translations, because of the differences between the three languages analyzed in the study, which would fulfill expectations in the three culturally and politically different cultures according to their individual ideological guidelines. We also have to be aware of the rapid degree of globalization, progress and change which create differences and shape new rules, rendering the old ones obsolete.
Ključne besede: gender, sexuality, language, discourse, translation, political correctness
Objavljeno: 11.08.2016; Ogledov: 372; Prenosov: 29
Celotno besedilo (5,15 MB)
DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF ADVERTISEMENTS IN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRYAndreja Ferk
, 2016, diplomsko delo
Opis: The language of automotive advertising has to be effective, special, innovative and creative. Advertisers use convincing language to awake the desire to buy the advertised product. In advertisements both language with the emotive power and visual components make an impact on the consumer.
Theoretical foundation of this work consists of two literary sources. The first one is a work written by Guy Cook: The Discourse of Advertising, which provides some insight in advertising as discourse. The second work is Martin and White’s Language of Evaluation, Appraisal in English which contributed to the theoretical explanation of evaluative language.
The empirical part investigates advertising as discourse, different elements of context and the language of advertisements through appraisal framework.
Ključne besede: advertising, discourse of advertising, language of evaluation, appraisal
Objavljeno: 25.10.2016; Ogledov: 359; Prenosov: 32
Celotno besedilo (915,59 KB)
Discourse Characteristics of Self-Help Books: The Example of The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen R. CoveyTamara Nerat
, 2017, magistrsko delo
Opis: The main purpose of the thesis was to explore the discourse characteristics in self-help books on the example of a popular classic of this genre. The aim was a discourse analysis of the self-help manual The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People (1989) by Stephen R. Covey. The book falls under the self-help category and includes typical features which are common for the genre. The thesis presents the distinguishing characteristics and shows the conventions which make it a typical representative of its genre. The main part consists of a discourse analysis of a chapter from the book, discussing the prevailing cohesive relations and its situational and generic coherence. The analysis examines the following cohesive devices: reference chains, typical examples of ellipsis and substitution, conjunction (the use of linking words and lexical ties), typical examples of lexical cohesion (examples of reiteration). The practical value of discourse analysis is in the fact that it displays a text's cohesion and coherence, both of which impact the text's quality and show if a text makes sense as a unified whole. The knowledge of cohesive devices is useful for evaluating texts (helping readers, critics, teachers) and text production (helping writers, journalists, students). The analysis has demonstrated connectedness and unity achieved through the use of cohesive devices and the prevalence of certain cohesive devices which can be linked to the specifics of the genre. The analysis also shows a situational and generic coherence, that is in line with the expectations towards the genre and context. An insight into how the internal organization of the text and content is connected to the register and genre of the text is supplied by the conclusion based on the analysis.
Ključne besede: discourse, cohesion, cohesive devices, coherence, register, genre, self-help, Stephen R. Covey, self-improvement, habits
Objavljeno: 20.02.2017; Ogledov: 497; Prenosov: 50
Celotno besedilo (690,78 KB)