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A discussion on new necessity-based method for requirements list elicitation and requirements classification
Špela Brglez, Bojan Dolšak, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Establishing appropriate requirements is essential in early phases of product design for obtaining enough information and in order not to over-constrain the product. Consequences of failing to do so are discussed. An overview of state-of-the-art methodologies for eliciting and classifying requirements is presented. Existing elicitation methods tend not to focus on the requirements content and the classification methods overlook the missing requirements. To overcome this gap a new method for requirements elicitation and classification is proposed. It defines the universally necessary requirements, product- specific necessary requirements and optional requirements. The appropriateness of the method is verified with a case-study on air ventilation register box and expert opinions. The positive contribution of the method is confirmed through evaluation with novice design engineers.
Ključne besede: decision making, design knowledge, design methodology, product design
Objavljeno: 11.07.2017; Ogledov: 304; Prenosov: 179
.pdf Celotno besedilo (993,02 KB)
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Considering interactions among multiple criteria for the server selection
Vesna Čančer, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Decision-making about server selection is one of the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) processes where interactions among criteria should be considered. The paper introduces and develops some solutions for considering interactions among criteria in the MCDM problems. In the frame procedure for MCDM by using the group of methods, based on assigning weights, special attention is given to the synthesis of the local alternatives' values into the aggregate values where the mutual preferential independence between two criteria is not assumed. Firstly, we delineate how to complete the additive model into the multiplicative one with synergic and redundancy elements in the case that criteria are structured in one level and in two levels. Furthermore, we adapted the concept of the fuzzy Choquet integral to the multi-attribute value theory. Studying and comparing the results of the example case of the server selection obtained by both aggregation approaches, the paper highlights the advantages of the first one since it does not require from decision makers to determine the weights of all possible combinations of the criteria and it enables the further use of the most preferred MCDM methods.
Ključne besede: interaction, multi-criteria decision-making, preferential dependence, server
Objavljeno: 03.08.2017; Ogledov: 238; Prenosov: 46
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,00 MB)
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Deficiency areas in decision making in undergraduate medical students
Zalika Klemenc-Ketiš, Janko Kersnik, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background: In family medicine, decisions can be difficult due to the early presentation of often poorly developed symptoms or the presentation of undifferentiated conditions that require competencies unique to family medicine, such as; primary care management, specific problem-solving skills, and a comprehensive and holistic approach to be taught to medical students. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the decision-making process covering all theoretical aspects of family practice consultation and to recognize possible areas of deficiency in undergraduate medical students. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional, observational study performed at the Medical School of the University of Maribor in Slovenia. The study population consisted of 159 fourth-year medical students attending a family medicine class. The main outcome measure was the scores of the students' written reports on solving the virtual clinical case. An assessment tool consisted of ten items that could be graded on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: The final sample consisted of 147 (92.5%) student reports. There were 95 (64.6%) female students in the sample. The mean total score on the assessment scale was 35.1+-7.0 points of a maximum 50 points. Students scored higher in the initial assessment items and lower in the patient education/involvement items. Female students scored significantly higher in terms of total assessment score and in terms of initial assessment and patient education/involvement. Conclusion: Undergraduate medical education should devote more time to teaching a comprehensive approach to consultation, especially modification of the health behavior of patients and opportunistic health promotion to patients. Possible sex differences in students' performance should be further evaluated.
Ključne besede: assessment, family medicine, undergraduate medical education, decision making
Objavljeno: 03.08.2017; Ogledov: 253; Prenosov: 166
.pdf Celotno besedilo (240,92 KB)
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Pomen poznavanja dejanskega stanja hidravličnega olja kot osnova za strateška odločanja
Darko Lovrec, Vito Tič, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Običajna hidravlična olja na mineralni osnovi in turbinska olja, katera se uporabljajo na strojih in napravah imajo različno dolgo uporabno dobo. Ta je odvisna od vrste različnih faktorjev: od pravilnega vzdrževanja in uporabljen vrste nadzora in aktivnosti in od skrbne izbire vrste olja. Mehanizmi staranja hidravličnih olj in pa vzroki, zakaj jih je potrebno zamenjati so sicer zelo dobro znani uporabnikom, manj poznano pa je dejstvo, da so med posameznimi vrstami olj velike razlike glede njihove vzdržljivosti, ko so le ta izpostavljena delovnim pogojem stroja. Vsako podaljšanje uporabne dobe hidravličnega ali turbinskega olja ponuja tako finančne kot okoljske prednosti, a predpostavlja poznavanje dejanskega stanja olja. Za namene ocene preostale uporabne dobe olja, je v prispevku predstavljena nova metoda za primerna za on-line nadzor stanja in za testiranje vzdržljivosti oz. oksidacijske odpornosti različnih hidravličnih olj. Rezultati takšnega testiranja uporabniku nudijo možnost strateškega odločanja pri postopku nabave najprimernejšega olja z dolgo uporabno dobo.
Ključne besede: hydraulic oil, aging, on-line monitoring, testing, strategical decision-making
Objavljeno: 10.10.2017; Ogledov: 186; Prenosov: 22
.pdf Celotno besedilo (732,34 KB)

System dynamic models as decision-making tools in agritourism
Tadeja Jere Lazanski, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Agritourism as a type of niche tourism is a complex and softly defined phaenomenon. The demands for fast and integrated decision regarding agritourism and its interconnections with environment, economy (investments, traffic) and social factors (tourists) is urgent. Many different methodologies and methods master softly structured questions and dilemmas with global and local properties. Here we present methods of systems thinking and system dynamics, which were first brought into force in the educational and training area in the form of different computer simulations and later as tools for decision-making and organisational re-engineering. We develop system dynamics models in order to present accuracy of methodology. These models are essentially simple and can serve only as describers of the activity of basic mutual influences among variables. We will pay the attention to the methodology for parameter model values determination and the so-called mental model. This one is the basis of causal connections among model variables. At the end, we restore a connection between qualitative and quantitative models in frame of system dynamics.
Ključne besede: agritourism, multi-criteria decision-making, modelling, system dynamics
Objavljeno: 14.11.2017; Ogledov: 275; Prenosov: 47
.pdf Celotno besedilo (525,84 KB)
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Miroljub Kljajić, Gerhard-Wilhelm Weber, 2012, predgovor, spremna beseda

Ključne besede: education, research, systems, modeling, group decision making
Objavljeno: 29.11.2017; Ogledov: 220; Prenosov: 28
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,14 MB)
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Miroljub Kljajić, Gerhard-Wilhelm Weber, 2014, predgovor, spremna beseda

Ključne besede: education, research, systems, modeling, group decision making
Objavljeno: 29.11.2017; Ogledov: 223; Prenosov: 41
.pdf Celotno besedilo (139,54 KB)
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Mirjana Kljajić Borštnar, Davorin Kofjač, Andrej Škraba, Gerhard-Wilhelm Weber, Andreja Pucihar, 2017, predgovor, spremna beseda

Ključne besede: simulation, modeling, system dynamics, decision making
Objavljeno: 29.11.2017; Ogledov: 251; Prenosov: 34
.pdf Celotno besedilo (187,28 KB)
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Teaching ethics and critical thinking in contemporary schools
Bojan Borstner, Smiljana Gartner, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Basic ethical questions, dilemmas and especially decisions do not only affect the life of an individual but can also affect lives of others. In some professional ethics, where decisions about a person's life or death are made, decisions can even be irreversible. In this contribution three ways of deciding by highlighting critical, and reflective decision-making or systematic thought process as the most effective method in ethics have been pointed out. Therefore, taking ethics as a critically reflective morality highlights the fact that we can talk about ethical exploration, so ethics is a process of thinking, not a set of established answers that need only to be passively accepted. It could be concluded that the study of and practice in, evaluating arguments and evidence (moral decision making) via critical thinking as well as using other important skills (raising questions according to Blooms taxonomy and doing a lot of case studies) is the best way to achieve the most fundamental goal in teaching an ethical course -- becoming a better person. And is therefore something that should be in every curriculum.
Ključne besede: authority, critical thinking, ethics, teaching ethics, decision making, intuitions
Objavljeno: 19.12.2017; Ogledov: 164; Prenosov: 27
.pdf Celotno besedilo (547,37 KB)
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Understanding the structural complexity of induced travel demand in decision-making
Juan Angarita-Zapata, Jorge Parra-Valencia, Hugo Andrade-Sosa, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background and purpose: Induced travel demand (ITD) is a phenomenon where road construction increases vehicles’ kilometers traveled. It has been approached with econometric models that use elasticities as measure to estimate how much travel demand can be induced by new roads. However, there is a lack of “white-box” models with causal hypotheses that explain the structural complexity underlying this phenomenon. We propose a system dynamics model based on a feedback mechanism to explain structurally ITD. Methodology: A system dynamics methodology was selected to model and simulate ITD. First, a causal loop diagram is proposed to describe the ITD structure in terms of feedback loops. Then a stock-flows diagram is formulated to allow computer simulation. Finally, simulations are run to show the quantitative temporal evolution of the model built. Results: The simulation results show how new roads in the short term induce more kilometers traveled by vehicles already in use; meanwhile, in the medium-term, new traffic is generated. These new car drivers appear when better flow conditions coming from new roads increase attractiveness of car use. More cars added to vehicles already in use produce new traffic congestion, and high travel speeds provided by roads built are absorbed by ITD effects. Conclusion: We concluded that approaching ITD with a systemic perspective allows for identifying leverage points that contribute to design comprehensive policies aimed to cope with ITD. In this sense, the model supports decision- making processes in urban contexts wherein it is still necessary for road construction to guarantee connectivity, such as the case of developing countries.
Ključne besede: induced travel demand, system dynamics, decision-making, dynamic modeling
Objavljeno: 23.01.2018; Ogledov: 286; Prenosov: 31
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,96 MB)
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