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Microeconomic uncertainties facilitate cooperative alliances and social welfare
Matjaž Perc, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We show that microeconomic chaotic variations of payoffs in the prisoner's dilemma game maintain cooperation over a broad range of defection temptation values where otherwise economic stalemate reigns. Thus, unpredictability at micro scales impedes mutual defection that inflicts social poverty.
Ključne besede: chaotic systems, game theory, microeconomic chaos, cooperation, social welfare
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 1005; Prenosov: 51
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Pupils' cooperation in the process of grading knowledge
Milena Ivanuš-Grmek, Marija Javornik Krečič, 2004, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: In the first part the paper points characteristics democratisation of the grading process. The second part presents the results of empirical research carried out in December 2003, which involved a sample of seven- and eight-grade pupils of eight-year primary school, and a sample of Slovenian language and mathematics teachers in the seven and eight grades of eight-year primary school. The results showed differences in judgements of the frequency of individual requirements of teachers between the groups of teachers and pupils
Ključne besede: education, teaching process, pupils, teachers, pupils' cooperation, primary education
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 872; Prenosov: 12
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Some theoretical aspects of trust, relationship commitment and cooperation
Sonja Mlaker Kač, 2013, samostojni strokovni sestavek ali poglavje v monografski publikaciji

Opis: In this paper we theoretically discuss some aspects of three important and mutually connected notions: the trust, the relationship commitment and the cooperation. All three concepts are crucial for success in todayʼs business world. All three concepts and terms are very complex, with several different definitions. We discuss them in article in detail, here we will only define them briefly. Trust is defined as 'a willingness to rely on an exchange partner in whom one has confidence' (Moorman, Despande, Zaltman, 1993: 83). Relationship commitment can in our discussion be defined as 'an exchange partner believing that an on-going relationship with another is as important as to warrant maximum efforts at maintaining it' (Morgan and Hunt, 1994: 23). And cooperation is defined as situations in which different partners work together so that they can achieve mutual goals (Anderson and Narus, 1990). Allthree concepts are very important in inter-organisational relationships andin achieving a competitive advantage.
Ključne besede: trust, relationship commitment, cooperation, competitive advantage
Objavljeno: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 898; Prenosov: 57
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Problem of trust in alliance networks
Władzimierz Sroka, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: At a time of growing globalization, we can observe the increasing role of cooperative strategies among companies, including alliances, joint ventures, and networks. Trust is one of the most important factors of success for any business activity. It relates especially to alliance networks because it can lower transaction costs, increase productivity and innovativeness, facilitate inter-organizational relationships and resolve conflicts. Therefore the article comprehensively discusses the problems of trust in alliance networks. The conclusion of the text is that trust building in alliance networks has an influence on the effectiveness of the whole network. The text is based on the latest world literature as well as the personal experience of the author in creating effective cooperative network agreements.
Ključne besede: trust, cooperation, partnership, relationships, alliance networks, opportunism
Objavljeno: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 236; Prenosov: 128
.pdf Celotno besedilo (666,28 KB)
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Alliance networks
Władzimierz Sroka, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The article deals with the problems of cooperation in network organizations. The structure of the text is divided into a couple of parts. Firstly, the increasing importance of alliance networks is described. Secondly, the concept of alliance networks as well as the essence of multinational corporations are presented. Beside theoretical deliberations, two practical cases are presented in the text too. First case relates to the Toyota keiretsu and the second one describes the network organization of the largest steel manufacturer in the world, i.e. ArcelorMittal Group. Last part of the text is the comparative analysis of the multinational corporations network vs. networks of small and medium size companies. The similarities as well as differences between both forms were presented. The article is based on the latest world literature devoted to the cooperative strategies as well as the practical business experience of the author from the work in Arcelor Mittal Poland and polish machine industry.
Ključne besede: cooperation, alliance network, multinational corporation, keiretsu group, steel industry
Objavljeno: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 199; Prenosov: 30
.pdf Celotno besedilo (307,21 KB)
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Evolutionary establishment of moral and double moral standards through spatial interactions
Dirk Helbing, Attila Szolnoki, Matjaž Perc, György Szabó, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Situations where individuals have to contribute to joint efforts or share scarce resources are ubiquitous. Yet, without proper mechanisms to ensure cooperation, the evolutionary pressure to maximize individual success tends to create a tragedy of the commons (such as over-fishing or the destruction of our environment). This contribution addresses a number of related puzzles of human behavior with an evolutionary game theoretical approach as it has been successfully used to explain the behavior of other biological species many times, from bacteria to vertebrates. Our agent-based model distinguishes individuals applying four different behavioral strategies: non-cooperative individuals ('defectors'), cooperative individuals abstaining from punishment efforts (called 'cooperators' or 'second-order free-riders'), cooperators who punish non-cooperative behavior ('moralists'), and defectors, who punish otherdefectors despite being non-cooperative themselves ('immoralists'). By considering spatial interactions with neighboring individuals, our model reveals several interesting effects: First, moralists can fully eliminate cooperators. This spreading of punishing behavior requires a segregation of behavioral strategies and solves the 'second-order free-rider problem'. Second, the system behavior changes its character significantly even after very long times ('who laughs last laughs best effect'). Third, the presence of a number of defectors can largely accelerate the victory of moralists over non-punishing cooperators. Fourth, in order to succeed, moralists may profit from immoralists in a way that appears like an 'unholy collaboration'. Our findings suggest that the consideration of punishment strategies allows one to understand the establishment and spreading of 'moral behavior' by means of game-theoretical concepts. This demonstrates that quantitative biological modeling approaches are powerful even in domains that have been addressed with non-mathematical concepts so far. The complex dynamics of certain social behaviors become understandable as the result of an evolutionary competition between different behavioral strategies.
Ključne besede: evolutionary game theory, social dilemmas, spatial games, moral, cooperation
Objavljeno: 16.06.2017; Ogledov: 353; Prenosov: 192
.pdf Celotno besedilo (949,75 KB)
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Vid Hudrap, Božidar Kante, 2016, diplomsko delo

Opis: The graduation thesis titled ETHICAL ISSUES AND AESTHETIC CONTEXT IN CORMAC MCCARTHY'S: THE ROAD discusses the novel The Road written by Cormac McCarthy from an ethical and aesthetical perspective. It covers issues of morality, its origins and how it is transmitted to the next generation in a world where society and its accomplishments were wiped out by a catastrophe of epic proportions. Here it examines the transmission of values from the father to the son who only knows society after the catastrophe – a society consisting only of father and son and the hostile environment they are subjected to. It follows the journey of a father and son who wander the desolate landscape in search of food and shelter and it deals with the ethical issues they encounter in their path ridden with cannibalistic bands, lone thieves and other individuals. The thesis examines the choices of the protagonists in dealing with other people, ethical conflicts which arise in these situations and between the protagonists themselves, as well as their quest to maintain their humanity. In doing so, it examines the metaphor of fire, the way people make moral decisions, our perception of moral goals and lines – the limits we set ourselves in how we deal with other people. It also touches on the basic concept of cooperation, how it evolved and its benefits for creating and maintaining a complex human society.
Ključne besede: Ethics, aesthetics, morality, transmission of morality, society, bright lines, bright lights, conceptual metaphor, cooperation.
Objavljeno: 02.06.2016; Ogledov: 610; Prenosov: 47
.pdf Celotno besedilo (789,18 KB)

Adaptive and bounded investment returns promote cooperation in spatial public goods games
Xiaojie Chen, Yongkui Liu, Yonghui Zhou, Long Wang, Matjaž Perc, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The public goods game is one of the most famous models for studying the evolution of cooperation in sizable groups. The multiplication factor in this game can characterize the investment return from the public good, which may be variable depending on the interactive environment in realistic situations. Instead of using the same universal value, here we consider that the multiplication factor in each group is updated based on the differences between the local and global interactive environments in the spatial public goods game, but meanwhile limited to within a certain range. We find that the adaptive and bounded investment returns can significantly promote cooperation. In particular, full cooperation can be achieved for high feedback strength when appropriate limitation is set for the investment return. Also, we show that the fraction of cooperators in the whole population can become larger if the lower and upper limits of the multiplication factor are increased. Furthermore, in comparison to the traditionally spatial public goods game where the multiplication factor in each group is identical and fixed, we find that cooperation can be better promoted if the multiplication factor is constrained to adjust between one and the group size in our model. Our results highlight the importance of the locally adaptive and bounded investment returns for the emergence and dominance of cooperative behavior in structured populations.
Ključne besede: cooperation, public goods, social dilemmas, physics of social systems
Objavljeno: 19.06.2017; Ogledov: 266; Prenosov: 173
.pdf Celotno besedilo (590,51 KB)
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Coevolution of quantum and classical strategies on evolving random networks
Qiang Li, Azhar Iqbal, Matjaž Perc, Minyou Chen, Derek Abbott, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We study the coevolution of quantum and classical strategies on weighted and directed random networks in the realm of the prisoners dilemma game. During the evolution, agents can break and rewire their links with the aim of maximizing payoffs, and they can also adjust the weights to indicate preferences, either positive or negative, towards their neighbors. The network structure itself is thus also subject to evolution. Importantly, the directionality of links does not affect the accumulation of payoffs nor the strategy transfers, but serves only to designate the owner of each particular link and with it the right to adjust the link as needed. We show that quantum strategies outperform classical strategies, and that the critical temptation to defect at which cooperative behavior can be maintained rises, if the network structure is updated frequently. Punishing neighbors by reducing the weights of their links also plays an important role in maintaining cooperation under adverse conditions. We find that the self-organization of the initially random network structure, driven by the evolutionary competition between quantum and classical strategies, leads to the spontaneous emergence of small average path length and a large clustering coefficient.
Ključne besede: evolutionary games, quantum strategies, coevolution, random networks, cooperation
Objavljeno: 19.06.2017; Ogledov: 306; Prenosov: 156
.pdf Celotno besedilo (803,96 KB)
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Directional learning and the provisioning of public goods
Heinrich H. Nax, Matjaž Perc, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We consider an environment where players are involved in a public goods game and must decide repeatedly whether to make an individual contribution or not. However, players lack strategically relevant information about the game and about the other players in the population. The resulting behavior of players is completely uncoupled from such information, and the individual strategy adjustment dynamics are driven only by reinforcement feedbacks from each player's own past. We show that the resulting "directional learning" is sufficient to explain cooperative deviations away from the Nash equilibrium. We introduce the concept of k-strong equilibria, which nest both the Nash equilibrium and the Aumann-strong equilibrium as two special cases, and we show that, together with the parameters of the learning model, the maximal k-strength of equilibrium determines the stationary distribution. The provisioning of public goods can be secured even under adverse conditions, as long as players are sufficiently responsive to the changes in their own payoffs and adjust their actions accordingly. Substantial levels of public cooperation can thus be explained without arguments involving selflessness or social preferences, solely on the basis of uncoordinated directional (mis)learning.
Ključne besede: cooperation, public goods, directional learning, phase transitions, physics of social systems
Objavljeno: 23.06.2017; Ogledov: 210; Prenosov: 148
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,40 MB)
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