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1.
Reduction of surface defects by optimization of casting speed using genetic programming : an industrial case study
Miha Kovačič, Uroš Župerl, Leo Gusel, Miran Brezočnik, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Štore Steel Ltd. produces more than 200 different types of steel with a continuous caster installed in 2016. Several defects, mostly related to thermomechanical behaviour in the mould, originate from the continuous casting process. The same casting speed of 1.6 m/min was used for all steel grades. In May 2023, a project was launched to adjust the casting speed according to the casting temperature. This adjustment included the steel grades with the highest number of surface defects and different carbon content: 16MnCrS5, C22, 30MnVS5, and 46MnVS5. For every 10 °C deviation from the prescribed casting temperature, the speed was changed by 0.02 m/min. During the 2-month period, the ratio of rolled bars with detected surface defects (inspected by an automatic control line) decreased for the mentioned steel grades. The decreases were from 11.27 % to 7.93 %, from 12.73 % to 4.11 %, from 16.28 % to 13.40 %, and from 25.52 % to 16.99 % for 16MnCrS5, C22, 30MnVS5, and 46MnVS5, respectively. Based on the collected chemical composition and casting parameters from these two months, models were obtained using linear regression and genetic programming. These models predict the ratio of rolled bars with detected surface defects and the length of detected surface defects. According to the modelling results, the ratio of rolled bars with detected surface defects and the length of detected surface defects could be minimally reduced by 14 % and 189 %, respectively, using casting speed adjustments. A similar result was achieved from July to November 2023 by adjusting the casting speed for the other 27 types of steel. The same was predicted with the already obtained models. Genetic programming outperformed linear regression.
Ključne besede: continuous casting of steel, surface defects, automatic control, machine learning, modelling, optimisation, prediction, linear regression, genetic programming
Objavljeno v DKUM: 25.03.2024; Ogledov: 205; Prenosov: 10
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,19 MB)
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2.
Microstructural and phase analysis of CuAlNi shape-memory alloy after continuous casting
Mirko Gojić, Stjepan Kožuh, Ivan Anžel, Gorazd Lojen, Ivana Ivanić, Borut Kosec, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The results of the characterization of a CuAlNi shape-memory alloy after continuous casting technology are shown. Using this procedure a bar with a diameter of 8 mm was manufactured. After solidification of the alloy the microstructure characterization was carried out using optic microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Our results showed that the as-cast alloy consisted of the parent β1 and β1’ martensite phases. The martensite phase primary as the needle-like inside grains was observed. Martensite laths have different orientations inside particular grains. It was found that the average grains size is 98.78 µm. The grain diameter near to the external surface is higher than in the center. The average hardness of the alloy was 275 HV1.
Ključne besede: shape memory alloys, martensite, continuous casting, grain size
Objavljeno v DKUM: 16.03.2017; Ogledov: 1149; Prenosov: 117
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,28 MB)
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3.
Continuous vertical casting of a NiTi alloy
Aleš Stambolić, Ivan Anžel, Gorazd Lojen, Aleksandra Kocijan, Monika Jenko, Rebeka Rudolf, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In this paper we present research that is connected to the performance of a series of experiments combined with the vacuum-induction melting and continuous vertical casting of a NiTi alloy in order to produce the strand. The theoretical chosen parameters made it possible to obtain a continuously cast strand with a diameter of 11 mm. The strand microstructures were investigated with a light and scanning electron microscope, while the chemical composition of the single phase was identified with the semi-quantitative micro-analysis energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectrometry. The research showed that the microstructure is dendritic, where in the inter-dendritic region the eutectic is composed of a dark NiTi phase and a bright TiNi3–x phase. In some areas we found Ti carbides and phases rich in Fe. The micro-chemical analysis of the NiTi strand showed that the composition changed over the cross and longitudinal sections, which is proof that the as-cast alloys are inhomogeneous. In the final part, the electrochemical behaviours of NiTi strand samples were compared to a commercially available NiTi cast alloy with the same composition.
Ključne besede: NiTi alloy, continuous vertical casting, microstructure, potentiodynamic and impedance test
Objavljeno v DKUM: 14.03.2017; Ogledov: 1374; Prenosov: 377
.pdf Celotno besedilo (586,88 KB)
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4.
Structure of the continuously cast Ni-based superalloy GMR 235
Franc Zupanič, Tonica Bončina, Gorazd Lojen, Boštjan Markoli, Savo Spaić, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In this work we characterized the structure of continuously cast small cross-section rods (O10 mm) of the Ni-based superalloy GMR 235. In the microstructure prevailed dendritic columnar ?-grains with ?'-precipitates. In the interdendritic regions MC-carbide and M3B2-boride were identified. The inverse macrosegregation was very faint, except at the secondary witness marks and natural corrugations. It was found that the alternating drawing mode had much greater influence on microstructure than other casting parameters. Special attention was given to explanation of processes leading to formation of surface marks (primary and secondary witness marks and natural corrugations). Formation of hot tears and appearance of inverse segregation is also discussed.
Ključne besede: Ni-based superalloy, solidification, microstructure, continuous casting, surface marks
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1684; Prenosov: 102
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