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Composite materials based on waste chicken feather fibers for oil-spill management
Simona Strnad, Andraž Jug, Zdenka Peršin Fratnik, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Oil spills remain one of the greatest man-made ecological threats, despite numerous advanced cleanup approaches. They still pose a major challenge in the search for materials and technologies that work as efficiently and sustainably as possible. Promising natural materials include poultry feathers, which are produced in large quantities every day as a byproduct of the meat industry. In this study, the influence of different forms of absorbents (loose feathers, pillows, and sheets) based on chicken feathers and the addition of an inorganic absorbent, sepiolite, on their absorption capacity was investigated. The chemical and physical surface properties, like morphology, chemical composition, zeta potential, surface free energies and oil absorption capacities were analyzed. The Gibbs free energy of immersion wetting with oil and the work of adhesion of the adsorbents, calculated based on contact angle measurements, were confirmed by the tests of adsorption capacities according to the ASTM 726–12 standard. The results showed that pure loose feathers have the highest oil adsorption capacity, while feather pillows have only half, and composite sheets have only a quarter of this capacity. The addition of inorganic adsorbent sepiolite did not increase the absorption capacity of the composites.
Ključne besede: chicken feather fibers, composites, sepiolite, surface properties, oil adsorption, oil-spill management
Objavljeno v DKUM: 10.05.2024; Ogledov: 39; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,64 MB)
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Determination of shear bond strength between PEEK composites and veneering composites for the production of dental restorations
Anamarija Kuchler, Klementina Pušnik Črešnar, Iztok Švab, Tomaž Vuherer, Majda Žigon, Mihael Brunčko, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We studied the shear bond strength (SBS) of two PEEK composites (BioHPP, BioHPP plus) with three veneering composites: Visio.lign, SR Nexco and VITA VM LC, depending on the surface treatment: untreated, sandblasted with 110 μm Al2O3, sandblasted and cleaned ultrasonically in 80% ethanol, with or without adhesive Visio.link, with applied Visio.link and MKZ primer. For the BioHPP plus, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed a slightly lower glass transition temperature (Tg 150.4 ± 0.4 °C) and higher melting temperature (Tm 339.4 ± 0.6 °C) than those of BioHPP (Tg 151.3 ± 1.3 °C, Tm 338.7 ± 0.2 °C). The dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) revealed a slightly higher storage modulus of BioHPP (E’ 4.258 ± 0.093 GPa) than of BioHPP plus (E′ 4.193 ± 0.09 GPa). The roughness was the highest for the untreated BioHPP plus, and the lowest for the polished BioHPP. The highest hydrophobicity was achieved on the sandblasted BioHPP plus, whereas the highest hydrophilicity was found on the untreated BioHPP. The highest SBSs were determined for BioHPP and Visio.lign, adhesive Visio.link (26.31 ± 4.17 MPa) or MKZ primer (25.59 ± 3.17 MPa), with VITA VM LC, MKZ primer and Visio.link (25.51 ± 1.94 MPa), and ultrasonically cleaned, with Visio.link (26.28 ± 2.94 MPa). For BioHPP plus, the highest SBS was determined for a sandblasted surface, cleaned ultrasonically, with the SR Nexco and Visio.link (23.39 ± 2.80 MPa).
Ključne besede: BioHPP, CAD/CAM milling, BioHPP plus, pressing, veneering composites, roughness, wettability, shear bond strength
Objavljeno v DKUM: 05.04.2024; Ogledov: 94; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,92 MB)
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Kraft lignin/tannin as a potential accelerator of antioxidant and antibacterial properties in an active thermoplastic polyester-based multifunctional material
Klementina Pušnik Črešnar, Alexandra Zamboulis, Dimitrios Bikiaris, Alexandra Aulova, Lidija Fras Zemljič, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This research focuses on key priorities in the field of sustainable plastic composites that will lead to a reduction in CO2 pollution and support the EU’s goal of becoming carbon neutral by 2050. The main challenge is to develop high-performance polyphenol-reinforced thermoplastic composites, where the use of natural fillers replaces the usual chemical additives with non-toxic ones, not only to improve the final performance but also to increase the desired multifunctionalities (structural, antioxidant, and antibacterial). Therefore, poly (lactic acid) (PLA) composites based on Kraft lignin (KL) and tannin (TANN) were investigated. Two series of PLA composites, PLA-KL and PLA-TANN, which contained natural fillers (0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.5% (w/w)) were prepared by hot melt extrusion. The effects of KL and TANN on the PLA matrices were investigated, especially the surface physicochemical properties, mechanical properties, and antioxidant/antimicrobial activity. The surface physicochemical properties were evaluated by measuring the contact angle (CA), roughness, zeta potential, and nanoindentation. The results of the water contact angle showed that neither KL nor TANN caused a significant change in the wettability, but only a slight increase in the hydrophilicity of the PLA composites. The filler loading, the size of the particles with their available functional groups on the surfaces of the PLA composites, and the interaction between the filler and the PLA polymer depend on the roughness and zeta potential behavior of the PLA-KL and PLA-TANN composites and ultimately improve the surface mechanical properties. The antioxidant properties of the PLA-KL and PLA-TANN composites were determined using the DPPH (2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) test. The results show an efficient antioxidant behavior of all PLA-KL and PLA-TANN composites, which increases with the filler content. Finally, the KL- and PLA-based TANN have shown resistance to the Gram-negative bacteria, E. coli, but without a correlation trend between polyphenol filler content and structure.
Ključne besede: poly (lactic acid), Kraft lignin, tannin, multifunctionality of PLA composites, surface mechanical properties, antioxidant/antibacterial activity
Objavljeno v DKUM: 18.09.2023; Ogledov: 401; Prenosov: 17
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,87 MB)
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Long-term creep compliance of wood polymer composites: using untreated wood fibers as a filler in recycled and neat polypropylene matrix
Marko Bek, Alexandra Aulova, Klementina Pušnik Črešnar, Sebastjan Matkovič, Mitjan Kalin, Lidija Slemenik Perše, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Neat (NPP) and recycled (RPP) polypropylene matrix materials were used to prepare wood–polymer composites with untreated wood fibers up to 40 wt.%. Long-term creep properties obtained through the time-temperature superposition showed superior creep resistance of composites with NPP matrix. In part, this is attributed to their higher crystallinity and better interfacial adhesion caused by the formation of a transcrystalline layer. This difference resulted in up to 25% creep compliance reduction of composites with NPP matrix compared to composites with recycled (RPP) polypropylene matrix, which does not form a transcrystalline layer between the fibers and polymer matrix. Despite the overall inferior creep performance of composites with RPP matrix, from the 20 wt.% on, the creep compliance is comparable and even surpasses the creep performance of unfilled NPP matrix and can be a promising way to promote sustainability.
Ključne besede: lesno-polimerni kompoziti, lezenje, vzdržljivost, les, recikliranje, wood–polymer composites, creep, durability, wood, recycling
Objavljeno v DKUM: 16.08.2023; Ogledov: 265; Prenosov: 17
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Sustainable processing of materials using supercritical fluids : doktorska disertacija
Dragana Borjan, 2022, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Supercritical fluids (SCFs) are powerful solvents with many unique properties. They have great potential for many processes, from extraction to chemical reactions and recycling. Accordingly, phase equilibrium data and thermodynamic and transport properties measurements in systems with a supercritical phase, as well as reliable and versatile mathematical models of the phase equilibrium thermodynamics, are needed for the process design and economic feasibility studies. The dissertation focuses on the benefits of supercritical fluid technology and consists of three main sections. The first section includes studies of the phase equilibria of the binary gas-alcohol and gas-urea derivatives. The influence of pressure and temperature on the system behaviour (solubility, viscosity, density, interfacial tension, melting point curve) was investigated. Most of the experiments were carried out with a high-pressure optical view cell, with minor modifications of the apparatus and measurement principle to determine mentioned thermodynamic and transport properties. The second part of the dissertation deals with the recovery of extracts from natural materials. Special interest is oriented towards supercritical fluid extracts, characterised by strong biological activities, especially antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Supercritical fluid extraction has been performed on a semi-continuous apparatus (at pressures of 150 bar and 250 bar and temperatures of 313.15 K and 333.15 K for oregano extraction; and at pressures of 100 bar and 300 bar and temperatures of 313.15 K and 333.15 K for red beetroot extraction) and various methods such as the microdilution method and the DPPH method were used to determine antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. In the third part, an overview of different methods for recycling carbon fibre reinforced composites is given, including chemical recycling with supercritical fluids. This field has not been well explored, and the approach is relatively new but very interesting from a sustainable point of view. For an economically feasible process design, the thermodynamic and mass transfer data have to be determined. The principles of the future lab- and pilot-scale operations demand these supporting data be known. The results obtained in the frame of this study represent the high added value in the scientific field. They are essential to design and modify processes that yield products that cannot be achieved with conventional production processes.
Ključne besede: supercritical fluids, alcohols, urea, phase equilibria, viscosity, density, interfacial tension, modified capillary method, isolation methods, supercritical fluid extraction, pharmacological activity, carbon fiber reinforced composites, recycling techniques
Objavljeno v DKUM: 11.10.2022; Ogledov: 870; Prenosov: 126
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,64 MB)

Peter Fajs, 2019, magistrsko delo

Opis: The objective of the master thesis is to determine the filling properties of injection moulding process for newly created material, and to understand how the variation of processing parameters affects the flow possibilities. In thesis two materials were analysed, i.e. neat PLA material, which was used as a benchmark material and newly created composite CitrusPLA that is based on biodegradable PLA matrix and reinforced with citrus fibres. To fulfil the aim, the virtual and experimental design of experiment with the Taguchi methodology was conducted with use of spiral flow test, where the flow length of material through mould cavity was observed. The experimental results were the basis for the accuracy validation of numerical results and also to determine the optimum process parameters for injection moulding products with best flow conditions through statistical evaluation. It has been concluded that the newly created composite has lower viscosity compared to benchmark virgin PLA which results in better flow conditions in spiral flow test analysis. Both materials have the same optimal conditions in terms of flow conditions. The contribution of mould temperature is in both cases negligible. However, other two variated parameters i.e. melt temperature and injection speed have higher influence on filling characteristics for both materials.
Ključne besede: injection moulding optimization, material characterization, Moldflow, injection moulding simulations, Taguchi DOE, bio-composites, citrus waste fibres, PLA
Objavljeno v DKUM: 07.06.2019; Ogledov: 1534; Prenosov: 28
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,19 MB)

Microstructure analysis of internally oxidized Cu-C composite
Rebeka Rudolf, Ladislav Kosec, Alojz Križman, Ivan Anžel, 2006, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: On the basis of experimentally obtained data, it was established that submicron-size bubbles are formed by the internal oxidation of Cu-C composite with fine dispersed graphite particles. They are homogeneously distributed in the Cu-matrix. This process starts with the dissolution of oxygen into the metal at the free surfaces, and continues with the diffusion of oxygen atoms into the volume of copper crystal lattice where they react with the graphite particles. The reactions of dissolved oxygen with carbon yield the gas products (CO2, CO), which cannot be dissolved in the crystal lattice of the matrix. The gas molecules, which are enclosed in the space previously occupied by the graphite, have a greater specific volume than the solid graphite. Consequently, compressive stresses arise in the copper matrix around the bubbles. The interaction of these stress fields with gliding dislocations during loading could improve the mechanical properties of the copper. The internal oxidation kinetic in Cu-C composite depends on the diffusion of oxygen in the copper matrix, and the penetration depth of the internal oxidation front indicates the parabolic nature of the process.
Ključne besede: metallurgy, Cu-C composites, internal oxidation, bubbles
Objavljeno v DKUM: 03.07.2017; Ogledov: 1073; Prenosov: 93
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,20 MB)
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Analysis of interface at explosive welded plates from low-carbon steel and titanium
Borut Kosec, Ladislav Kosec, Gabrijela Čevnik, Peter Fajfar, Mirko Gojić, Ivan Anžel, 2004, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: On the basis of experimentally obtained data, it was established that a very thin layer of a melt is generated at the explosive welding of two metals at the bond interface within which impurities flow at the bond during melting. Rapid cooling after the collision generates an alloy of different structure and very small grains of an average thickness app. 1 to 2 micro m. The generation of such an amorphous layer in the bond area has been noticed with various metal combinations and represents a fundamental mechanism of explosive welding of metals. Using the metallographic analysis, the development of the vortices which were formed by the explosive welding of low-carbon steel and titanium plates is described in the paper.
Ključne besede: metallurgy, explosion welding, plates, composites, low-carbon steel, titanium, melt, vortex
Objavljeno v DKUM: 03.07.2017; Ogledov: 1313; Prenosov: 80
.pdf Celotno besedilo (123,13 KB)
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Metal oxide blended ZSM-5 nanocomposites as ethanol sensors
Madhuri Lakhane, Rajendra S. Khairnar, Megha Mahabole, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Nano-ZSM-5 is synthesized without organic template via microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The synthesized nano-ZSM-5 zeolite is blended with metal oxides (ZnO and TiO2) to have novel composites as ethanol sensors. The composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques. A study on ethanol sensing behaviour of metal oxide blended composite screen-printed thick films is carried out and the effect of metal oxide concentration on various ethanol sensing features, specifically operating temperature, response/recovery time and active region of the sensor, are investigated. XRD and FTIR confirm the blending of metal oxides in ZSM-5 matrix. Both, ZnO and TiO2 blended, composite films are sensitive to ethanol. It can be concluded that metal oxide blending improves the preformance of sensor for ethanol detection. The response/recovery time and active sensing regions depend upon the concentration of metal oxide in host zeolite. The ZnO/ZSM-5 and TiO2/ZSM-5 composite films are the excellent ethanol sensors.
Ključne besede: ZSM-5 zeolite, composites, XRD, FTIR, ethanol sensing
Objavljeno v DKUM: 26.06.2017; Ogledov: 1713; Prenosov: 388
.pdf Celotno besedilo (290,03 KB)
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