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Do women see things differently than men do?
Norbert Jaušovec, Ksenija Jaušovec, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of gender on brain activity. Thirty male and 30 female respondents solved simple auditory and visual tasks while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Also recorded was the percentage of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (%StO2) in the respondents' frontal brain areas with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The attended task condition was based on the oddball paradigm. Respondents had to mentally count infrequent target stimuli - tones or shapes. In the unattended condition they just listened to tones or viewed different shapes. Gender related differences in EEG activity were only observed in the amplitudes of the early evoked gamma response and the P3 component. Women displayed higher amplitudes than men. A second finding was that these differences were more pronounced for the visual than for the auditory stimuli. No gender related differences were observed in the ERP latencies, as well as in the amplitudes of the P1-N1 complex, and the induced gamma response. The NIRS data showed that males in their frontal brain areas displayed a higher percentage of StO2 than did females; and males also showed a higher increase in %StO2 during task performance as compared with the resting condition. Taken all together the results suggest that the females' visual event-categorization process is more efficient than in males. The data are discussed in the theoretical framework of the evolutionary theory of human spatial sex differences.
Ključne besede: psychology, functional neuroimaging, brain activities, neuropsychology, gender, gender differences
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 870; Prenosov: 23
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

3.
Gender related differences in visual and auditory processing of verbal and figural tasks
Norbert Jaušovec, Ksenija Jaušovec, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The aim of the present study was to investigate gender related differences in brain activity for tasks of verbal and figural content presented in the visual and auditory modality. Thirty male and 30 female respondents solved four tasks while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Also recorded was the percentage of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (%StO2) in the respondents' frontal brain areas with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The main findings of the study can be summarized as follows. (1) Most pronounced differences between males and females were observed for the factor modality-visual/auditory. (2) Gender related differences in neuroelectric brain responses could be observed during the solution of auditory and visual tasks; however, on the behavioral level only for the visual tasks did females display shorter reaction times than males. The ERP amplitudes of the early evoked gamma response, P1, and P3 were higher in females than males, whereas the N4 amplitude was higher in males than females. The differences were more noticeable in the visual modality. The NIRS showed a more bilateral involvement of the frontal brain areas in females as compared with a more left hemispheric frontal activity in males. In the task conditions an increase in right hemispheric activity in females was observed; however, this increase was less pronounced in the visual than the auditory domain, indicating a more lateralized processing of visual stimuli in females. Taken all together the results suggest that the females' visual event-categorization process is more efficient than in males.
Ključne besede: psychology, neuropsychology, brain activities, visual processing, auditory processing, gender, gender differences
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 1042; Prenosov: 31
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

4.
Spatial rotation and recognizing emotions : gender related differences in brain activity
Norbert Jaušovec, Ksenija Jaušovec, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity - assessed with EEG methodology - while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2 alpha band. Males and females displayed an inverse IQ-activation relationship in just that domain in which they usually perform better: females in the emotional intelligence domain, and males in the visuospatial ability domain. A similar pattern of brain activity could also be observed for the male/female respondents with different levels of performance and emotional IQ. It was suggested that high ability representatives of both genders to some extent compensate for their inferior problem solving skills (males in emotional tasks and females in spatial rotation tasks) by increasing their level of attention.
Ključne besede: psychology, cognitive processes, emotional intelligence, EEG activities, problem complexity, brain, memory, spatial rotation, gender, event-related desynchronization
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 1143; Prenosov: 19
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

5.
Poznavanje in stališča osnovnošolskih učiteljev in študentov zaključnih letnikov razrednega pouka do tehnik za olajšanje pomnenja
Taja Lešnik, 2017, magistrsko delo

Opis: V svojem zaključnem delu sem predstavila spomin – njegov razvoj, pojmovanje, delovanje in zakonitosti. Osredotočila sem se tudi na spominske tehnike, ki nam olajšajo pomnjenje, in predstavila nekatere izmed njih ter na tehniko Brain gym, ki je v zadnjem času vse bolj razširjena. V empiričnem delu sem preučevala znanje učiteljev razrednega in predmetnega pouka ter študentov zaključnih letnikov razrednega pouka o spominu in njegovih zakonitostih, preverjala sem poznavanje in uporabo spominskih tehnik med navedenimi skupinami udeležencev ter pridobivala mnenja o tehniki Brain gym in smiselnosti njene uporabe v šoli. Spomin je človeška vrlina, ki jo je potrebno nenehno razvijati in negovati. Učitelji imamo ključno vlogo pri razvijanju spomina učencev in prav je, da se te izredno pomembne naloge zavedamo in jo tudi opravljamo. Velikokrat je za ta korak potrebne veliko vztrajnosti, ki pa se obrestuje, saj s tem dosežemo, da se učenci z veseljem učijo in v krajšem času pridobijo večje število informacij. Ugotavljam, da tako osnovnošolski učitelji kot študenti razrednega pouka dobro poznajo spomin in dejstva, ki so z njim povezana, prav tako sem ugotovila, da so dobro seznanjeni s spominskimi tehnikami, saj jih študentje uporabljajo pri študiju, učitelji pa v večini učijo učence, kako te tehnike uporabljati. Zanimiva je ugotovitev, da študenti zaključnih letnikov razrednega pouka poznajo več različnih spominskih tehnik kot učitelji, ki poučujejo na osnovnih šolah. Ugotavljam tudi, da udeleženci tehniko Brain gym dobro poznajo, vendar so o tej tehniki bolje seznanjeni učitelji razrednega in predmetnega pouka. Vse tri skupine udeležencev zagovarjajo smiselnost uporabe tehnike Brain gym v razredu.
Ključne besede: spomin, mnemotehnike, Brain gym, poznavanje in uporaba, mnenja
Objavljeno: 10.03.2017; Ogledov: 523; Prenosov: 60
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,05 MB)

6.
Brain metastases in lung adenocarcinoma
Karmen Stanič, Matjaž Zwitter, Nina Turnšek Hitij, Izidor Kern, Aleksander Sadikov, Tanja Čufer, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The brain represents a frequent progression site in lung adenocarcinoma. This study was designed to analyse the association between the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status and the frequency of brain metastases (BM) and survival in routine clinical practice. Patients and methods. We retrospectively analysed the medical records of 629 patients with adenocarcinoma in Slovenia who were tested for EGFR mutations in order to analyse the cumulative incidence of BM, the time from the diagnosis to the development of BM (TDBM), the time from BM to death (TTD) and the median survival. Results. Out of 629 patients, 168 (27%) had BM, 90 patients already at the time of diagnosis. Additional 78 patients developed BM after a median interval of 14.3 months; 25.8 months in EGFR positive and 11.8 months in EGFR negative patients, respectively (p = 0.002). EGFR mutations were present in 47 (28%) patients with BM. The curves for cumulative incidence of BM in EGFR positive and negative patients demonstrate a trend for a higher incidence of BM in EGFR mutant patients at diagnosis (19% vs. 13%, p = 0.078), but no difference later during the course of the disease. The patients with BM at diagnosis had a statistically longer TTD (7.3 months) than patients who developed BM later (3.1 months). The TTD in EGFR positive patients with BM at diagnosis was longer than in EGFR negative patients (12.6 vs. 6.8, p = 0.005), while there was no impact of EGFR status on the TTD of patients who developed BM later. Conclusions. Except for a non-significant increase of frequency of BM at diagnosis in EGFR positive patients, EGFR status had no influence upon the cumulative incidence of BM. EGFR positive patients had a longer time to CNS progression. While EGFR positive patients with BM at diagnosis had a longer survival, EGFR status had no influence on TTD in patients who developed BM later during the course of disease.
Ključne besede: brain metastases, lung adenocarcinoma, EGFR mutations
Objavljeno: 05.04.2017; Ogledov: 261; Prenosov: 34
.pdf Celotno besedilo (770,93 KB)
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7.
The role of brain oscillations in working memory
Anja Pahor, 2017, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Working memory is important for a number of higher cognitive functions such as problem solving, reasoning, reading and language comprehension. Moreover, working memory measures are significantly correlated with measures of intellectual abilities. Investigating the neural basis of working memory provides the opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of individual differences in general cognitive ability. This thesis aimed to elucidate the roles of brain oscillations in working memory, with a particular focus on theta and gamma frequency bands. Two techniques were employed that are best suited for the non-invasive study of brain oscillations: scalp recorded EEG and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). In the first step, correlational studies were conducted followed by neuromodulatory studies in the next step. The results showed that individuals with high working memory capacity, contrasted against individuals with low working memory capacity, display stronger alpha and gamma band desynchronisation and increased coherence in the theta frequency band between fronto- parietal areas during maintenance and between frontal brain areas during retrieval. The results further demonstrated that interactions between theta and gamma frequency bands are related to individual differences in working memory capacity. The neuromodulatory studies showed that theta tACS applied over parietal brain areas can be used to enhance performance on working memory tasks, thereby providing support for the causal role of theta band oscillations in working memory.
Ključne besede: working memory, brain oscillations, capacity, electroencephalograpy, tACS, theta, gamma
Objavljeno: 28.07.2017; Ogledov: 461; Prenosov: 45
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,46 MB)

8.
Combination of lung ultrasound (a comet-tail sign) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in differentiating acute heart failure from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma as cause of acute dyspnea in prehospital emergency setting
Gregor Prosen, Petra Klemen, Matej Strnad, Štefek Grmec, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Introduction: We studied the diagnostic accuracy of bedside lung ultrasound (the presence of a comet tail sign), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and clinical assessment (modified Boston criteria) in differentiating heart failure (HF)- related acute dyspnea from pulmonary (COPD/asthma) related acute dyspnea in the prehospital setting. Methods: Prospective study was performed at the Center for Emergency Medicine Maribor, Slovenia, between July 2007 and April 2010. Two groups of patients were compared: HF-related acute dyspnea group (n = 129) vs pulmonary-related (asthma/COPD) acute dyspnea group (n = 89). All patients underwent lung ultrasound examination, along with basic laboratory, rapid NT-proBNP testing and chest X-ray. Results: Ultrasound comet tail sign has 100% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 100% negative predictive value (NPV) and 96% positive predictive value (PPV) for the diagnosis of HF. NT-proBNP (cut-off point 1000 pg/ml) has 92% sensitivity, 89% specificity, 86% NPV and 90% PPV. Boston modified criteria have 85% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 80% NPV and 90% PPV. Comparing the three methods, we found significant differences between ultrasound sign vs NT-proBNP (P<0.05) and Boston modified criteria (P<0.05). Combination of ultrasound sign and NT-proBNP has 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% NPV and 100% PPV. With ultrasound we can exclude HF in patients with pulmonary related dyspnea who have positive NT-proBNP (> 1000 pg/ml) and previous history of HF. Conclusions: Ultrasound comet tail sign alone or in combination with NT-proBNP has a high diagnostic accuracy in differentiating between acute HF and COPD/asthma causes of acute dyspnea in prehospital emergency setting.
Ključne besede: lungs, ultrasound, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, acute heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, acute dyspnea
Objavljeno: 29.06.2017; Ogledov: 763; Prenosov: 95
.pdf Celotno besedilo (420,76 KB)
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