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Translational and personalized medicine
Krešimir Pavelić, Tamara Martinović, Sandra Kraljević-Pavelić, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The idea behind personalized medicine is to tailor health care to an individual’s unique genetic makeup. Hitherto, “one size fits all” approach was used in medicine. With the rise of personal medicine, we are moving towards a more precise, predictable and powerful medicine that is customized for each individual patient. To allow for an improvement in the acceleration and efficacy of drug development, high-throughput methods (“omics”) are rapidly being developed. This leads to understanding of multiple factors that are involved in disease progress on an individual level. In order to analyze the great amount of data that is collected from such experiments, one has to turn to systems biology, an interdisciplinary science that studies complex interactions within a biological system. Finally, translational medicine comes into play, by “translating” the information gathered from research into diagnostic tools, medicines and policies, with the final goal of improving individuals’ health. Personalized medicine is one of the future, and it will revolutionize the current practice of diagnosis-based medicine, once fully developed.
Ključne besede: personalized medicine, translational medicine, clinic, high-throughput methods, systems biology
Objavljeno: 08.10.2018; Ogledov: 446; Prenosov: 275
.pdf Celotno besedilo (324,18 KB)
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What is the tendency in biology virtual field trips?
Miro Puhek, Matej Perše, Andrej Šorgo, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: There is no doubt any more that virtual worlds are suitable for school environment. It was shown by various researchers that they can contribute in supplying students with additional information, help them to visualise subjects, respond with answer on demand or even in some cases supplement the real materials. Based on the real experience, the virtual field trail Walk on Maribor Island was developed for biology and natural science classes in lower secondary school. The trail is presented through eight exercises that differentiate not only in theme, but also in difficultness, fun, background idea etc. In spring 2011, 133 eighth grade students worked on the virtual field trail during the biology class. After the work on exercises, students were asked to analyse the exercises regarding the level of difficultness, level of interest and level of proficiency. The main aim of the study was to present the tendency in biology virtual field trips that should be taken into consideration before the development of new exercises.
Ključne besede: education, biology teaching, field trip, field work
Objavljeno: 19.12.2017; Ogledov: 1013; Prenosov: 67
.pdf Celotno besedilo (919,81 KB)
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Students' perceptions of real and virtual field work in biology
Miro Puhek, Matej Perše, Andrej Šorgo, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The outdoor education is a method of learning with the exposure to (not exclusively) the natural environment that combines all human senses. Students tend to acknowledge a very positive effect of this kind of learning. It is easier and more memorable to connect the theory with practice, when they see things in nature, rather than to just hear about them in the classroom. Despite its popularity, teachers face various obstacles when they take their students outdoors. Although the outdoor education is included in the Slovenian primary and lower secondary school curriculum, the percentage is not high enough, which depends on various reasons. Teachers defined lack of time, suitability of area around the school, not enough instruments for field work and to expanded curriculum as the main reasons for not including field work in the classes. Some of these obstacles could be solved by implementation of information and communication technology (ICT) into the biology and ecology classes. In this research the results of 192 students' point of view on the importance of field work, obstacles of that kind of work and the ICT as a solution to support or replace the real field works are presented. All questioned students were prospective teachers, so sooner or later majority of them will face issues connected to the field work and possibilities to solve them with the help of ICT.
Ključne besede: education, biology teaching, ICT, obstacles
Objavljeno: 19.12.2017; Ogledov: 840; Prenosov: 51
.pdf Celotno besedilo (513,15 KB)
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Secondary school students' perspectives on and attitudes towards laboratory work in biology
Andrej Šorgo, Andreja Špernjak, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Interest in Biology among secondary school students in Slovenia is dropping from year to year. 1,046 secondary school students were surveyed about their preferred number of group mates in the laboratory, their attitudes towards and positive and negative views of laboratory work in Biology. From the students' perspective, the preferred way of teaching biology would be a mixture of interesting lectures and laboratory activities where they would have the opportunity to find solutions to the problems on their own through work in small groups. This is in direct opposition to prevailing teaching practice, where lectures are the dominant way of teaching. To overcome the loss of interest in Biology among students, action is needed immediately. Bridging the gap between students' perspectives on and opinions-about good teaching practice and actual teaching practice should follow three tracks: the first one involves changes to the syllabus in such a way that less is more; the second one requires rewriting of manuals and textbooks, and the third is a change in the teaching practice of individual teachers. If for the first two teachers can find the excuse that this is outside their sphere of competence, there can be no excuse for avoiding immediate changes in teaching techniques.
Ključne besede: education, biology, secondary education, attitudes, laboratory work, students
Objavljeno: 19.12.2017; Ogledov: 859; Prenosov: 85
.pdf Celotno besedilo (806,44 KB)
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Perspectives on the introduction of computer-supported real laboratory exercises into biology teaching in secondary schools
Andreja Špernjak, Andrej Šorgo, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Computer supported virtual and real laboratories are recognized as tools that can help in raising the quality of biology instruction, and raising development competences in students. Yet biology teachers have been treating the computer as typewriter, as a source of information and as a tool for communication, all of which usages are common to all subjects. The uses of ICT that can significantly help in developing scientific literacy and that are primary tools in science teaching - such as the use of data loggers - are only rarely on the syllabus. The lack of equipment is not the most important reason for failure to use such applications; instead, this is probably due to teachers' attitudes, opinions and knowledge. Students cannot be recognized as an obstacle in working with ICT. Lawer secondary school students aged between 10 and 14 performed three laboratory exercises (Activity of yeast, Gas exchange in breathing, Heart rate) using three different methods: classic, computer-supported and virtual laboratory. As a result of testing, we know that all three methods are suitable even for younger students. When students were asked which method they liked the most, their first choice was computer-supported laboratory, followed by classic laboratory, with virtual laboratory in the third place.
Ključne besede: education, biology, secondary education, computer-supported laboratory, laboratory work, ICT, simulations
Objavljeno: 15.12.2017; Ogledov: 939; Prenosov: 91
.pdf Celotno besedilo (783,64 KB)
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Language-independent virtual biology exercise for the development of key competences for lifelong learning
Miro Puhek, Andrej Šorgo, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Natural sciences in Slovenia are not as popular as we would like them to be. Biology teaching and learning in great part consist of memorizing the facts and not so much of developing competences. Laboratory and field work are recognized as methods where students can achieve subject specific and generic competences, as recommended by different international organizations. Such key competences are mathematical competence and competences in science and technology, and digital competences. Although competences cannot be learned but have to be achieved, the task seems epical when students can hardly find computer supported didactical tools in their own language. On the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics virtual biology exercise Mendelian Genetics with a translational tool was developed. Teachers have the possibility to translate it into desired foreign language. Virtual exercise is interactive and encourages the critical thinking approach to reach the high level cognitive skills and development of different competences.
Ključne besede: education, biology teaching, virtual laboratory, laboratory work, competences, Slovenia
Objavljeno: 15.12.2017; Ogledov: 690; Prenosov: 64
.pdf Celotno besedilo (919,38 KB)
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Apacer: a six-step model for the introduction of computer-supported laboratory exercises in biology teaching
Andrej Šorgo, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This article describes a six-step approach used for the introduction of computer-supported laboratory exercises in Biology teaching. Following the model students will be guided from recognizing a problem question to the end report in a series of active tasks. The model was named APACER as an acronym of the six steps: Ask, Predict, Act, Comment, Evaluate and Report. The model was tested with 15-18-year-old secondary school students as group and individual work over a time span of ten years and several hundred students performing laboratory exercises in Biology. Work on development of the model can be described as reflective classroom practice. By observation of students' work, grading of their reports and evaluation of results from exams, it was recognized that students achieved much higher grades because of better knowledge and improved reports. Transfer of the model to other Science subjects is suggested.
Ključne besede: education, biology teaching, computer-supported laboratory, laboratory work, ICT, Slovenia
Objavljeno: 12.12.2017; Ogledov: 822; Prenosov: 78
.pdf Celotno besedilo (948,80 KB)
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Political systems affect mobile and sessile species diversity - a legacy from the post-WWII period
Sara Cousins, Mitja Kaligarič, Branko Bakan, Regina Lindborg, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Political ideologies, policies and economy affect land use which in turn may affect biodiversity patterns and future conservation targets. However, few studies have investigated biodiversity in landscapes with similar physical properties but governed by different political systems. Here we investigate land use and biodiversity patterns, and number and composition of birds and plants, in the borderland of Austria, Slovenia and Hungary. It is a physically uniform landscape but managed differently during the last 70 years as a consequence of the political "map" of Europe after World War I and II. We used a historical map from 1910 and satellite data to delineate land use within three 10-kilometre transects starting from the point where the three countries meet. There was a clear difference between countries detectable in current biodiversity patterns, which relates to land use history. Mobile species richness was associated with current land use whereas diversity of sessile species was more associated with past land use. Heterogeneous landscapes were positively and forest cover was negatively correlated to bird species richness. Our results provide insights into why landscape history is important to understand present and future biodiversity patterns, which is crucial for designing policies and conservation strategies across the world.
Ključne besede: biology, plants, birds, political systems
Objavljeno: 19.06.2017; Ogledov: 585; Prenosov: 353
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,16 MB)
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Sand as a medium for transmission of vibratory signals of prey in antlions Euroleon nostras (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae)
Dušan Devetak, Bojana Mencinger Vračko, Miha Devetak, Marko Marhl, Andreja Špernjak, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: European pit-building antlions (Euroleon nostras/ Geoffroy in Fourcroy/) detect their prey by sensing the vibrations that prey generate during locomotory activity. The behavioural reactions and some of the physical properties of substrate vibrations in sand are measured to observe signal transmission through the substrate. The frequency range of the signals of four arthropod species (Tenebrio molitor, Pyrrhocoris apterus, Formica sp. and Trachelipus rathkei) is 0.1-4.5 kHz and acceleration values are in the range ▫$400 {mu}m s^{-2} to 1.5 mm s^{-2}$▫. Substrate particle size and the frequency of prey signals both influence the propagation properties of vibratory signals. The damping coefficient at a frequency 300 Hz varies from 0.26 to 2.61 dB ▫$cm^{-1}$▫ and is inversely proportional to the size of the sand particle. The damping coefficient is positively correlated with the frequency of the pulses. Vibrations in finer sand are attenuated more strongly than in coarser sand and, consequently, an antlion detects its prey only at a short distance. The reaction distance is defined as the distance of the prey from the centre of the pit when the antlion begins tossing sand as a reaction to the presence of prey. The mean reaction distance is 3.3 cm in the finest sand (particle size ▫$le 0.23 mm$▫) and 12.3 cm in coarser sand (particle size 1-1.54 mm). The most convenient sands for prey detection are considered to be medium particle-sized sands.
Ključne besede: biology, zoology, receptors, chordotonal organs, vibrations, vibratory signals, transmission of vibrations, reception of vibrations, electrophysiology, substrate vibration, antlions, Myrmeleontidae, sand, substrate vibration, particle size
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 1777; Prenosov: 89
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The journey of a sandwich: computer-based laboratory experiments about the human digestive system in high school biology teaching
Andrej Šorgo, Zdravka Hajdinjak, Darko Briški, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school biology. Using a computer equipped with a commercially available data-acquisition system and a couple of sensors,it was possible to illustrate the basic underlying physical and chemical principles of digestion to the students. Students were able to investigate, through hands-on activities, the chewing force of the jaws, importance of the mechanical breakdown of food, enzymatic activity of pepsin and amylase, antibacterial activity of hydrochloric acid, and importance of the villi for absorption. Students found the experiments interesting and helpful for understanding the digestive process. Furthermore, the results fromtesting indicated that the students had a deeper understanding of the physiological processes.
Ključne besede: education, biology, high schools, data logging
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 1148; Prenosov: 104
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