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Diversity and content of carotenoids and other pigments in the transition from the green to the red stage of Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae identified by HPLC-DAD and LC-QTOF-MS
Jaša Veno Grujić, Biljana Todorović, Roman Kranvogl, Terezija Ciringer, Jana Ambrožič-Dolinšek, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: H. pluvialis is a unicellular freshwater alga containing many bioactive compounds, especially carotenoids, which are the strongest antioxidants among the pigments. This study evaluates the composition and content of carotenoids and other pigments in both stages of algae life cycle, especially in the green vegetative stage, less studied in comparison to the red stage. To determine the composition and content of carotenoids, a combination of HPLC-DAD and LC-QTOF-MS was used. The content of carotenoids in the green vegetative stage was significantly lower than in the red vegetative stage. In the green vegetative stage, 16 different carotenoids and other pigments were identified. Among the total 8.86 mg g−1 DW of pigments, 5.24 mg g−1 DW or 59% of them were chlorophyll a with its derivatives, and 3.62 mg g−1 DW or 41% of them were free carotenoids. After the transition from the green to the red stage, the carotenoid composition was replaced by secondary carotenoids, astaxanthin and its esters, which predominated in the whole carotenoid composition. In addition to free astaxanthin, 12 astaxanthin monoesters, 6 diesters and 13 other carotenoids were determined. The majority of 37.86 mg g−1 DW pigments were monoesters. They represented 82% of all pigments, and their content was about 5 times higher than both, diesters (5.91 mg g−1 DW or 12% of all) and free carotenoids (2.4 mg g−1 DW or 6% of all). The results of the study contribute to the data on the overall pigment composition and content of H. pluvialis algae and provide the basis for further improvement of cultivation of the H. pluvialis algae.
Ključne besede: antioxidants, astaxanthin, chlorophylls, bioactive compounds, algae, Haematococcus, life cycle, pigment composition, secondary carotenoids
Objavljeno v DKUM: 21.05.2024; Ogledov: 118; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,92 MB)
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Life Cycle Assessment of Pilot-Scale Bio-Refining of Invasive Japanese Knotweed Alien Plant towards Bio-Based Bioactive Compounds
Robert Hren, Katerina Naumoska, Urška Jug, Lidija Čuček, Blaž Likozar, Uroš Novak, Annamaria Vujanović, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Japanese knotweed is an invasive alien plant species with characteristic rapid expansion in Europe and North America and resistance to extermination. It displaces autochthonous biodiversity and causes major damage to infrastructure, thus causing global ecological and economic damage. The Japanese knotweed plant is usually eradicated using various chemical, biological, or mechanical techniques, which at a large scale include heavy equipment, usually followed by incineration. Therefore, excavation is preferred to eradication techniques, and as a biomass waste recovery method due to the extraction of high-value biocompounds. This is supported by the fact that the Japanese knotweed possesses various bioactive compounds with beneficial effects on human health. Its rhizome bark extract produces strong and stable antioxidant activity over time, as well as apoptotic, antibacterial, and other beneficial activities. In this work, an environmental impact assessment, including greenhouse gas footprint, acidification, eutrophication, and ecotoxicity for extraction route of the Japanese knotweed rhizome bark, is performed. A comparative case study between the lab-based and proposed pilot-scale production of active added-value extract was evaluated. The results show the pilot-scale production exhibits lower environmental burdens, mainly due to greater electricity requirements for the lab-scale alternative.
Ključne besede: Japanese knotweed rhizome bark extract, invasive alien plant species, bioactive compounds, lab-scale, pilot-scale, life cycle assessment (LCA), environmental burden assessment
Objavljeno v DKUM: 19.03.2024; Ogledov: 186; Prenosov: 9
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,31 MB)
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Antioxidant, antibacterial, antitumor, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and nevro-protective activity of Ganoderma lucidum : an overview
Darija Cör Andrejč, Željko Knez, Maša Knez Marevci, 2022, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Ganoderma lucidum is a very medicinal mushroom that has been utilized in Oriental medicine for many years. It has a wide range of pharmacological and therapeutic properties, and has been used for many years as a health promoter. It contains various biologically active compounds that improve the immune system and have antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antimicrobial properties. Active compounds include triterpenoids and polysaccharides, as well as proteins, lipids, phenolics, sterols, etc. In the following review, we summarize briefly their biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antitumor, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory activity. Although Ganoderma has a number of medicinal effects that have been confirmed by the in vitro and in vivo studies summarised in this review, there are some limitations. Clinical trials face mainly a lack of pure constituents. Accurate identification of the compounds obtained is also problematic. In addition, most of the included studies were small, and there were concerns about the methodological quality of each study. Studies have shown that Ganoderma has valuable potential for the prevention and treatment of cancer. In any case, G. lucidum cannot be used as first-line therapy for cancer.
Ključne besede: Ganoderma lucidum, bioactive function, active compounds, polysaccharides, triterpenoids
Objavljeno v DKUM: 16.08.2023; Ogledov: 278; Prenosov: 30
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,26 MB)
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Hydrothermal processes for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to value-added compounds : doctoral disertation
Tanja Milovanović, 2020, doktorska disertacija

Opis: In this doctorial dissertation subcritical water processes of lignocellulosic biomass to obtain value-added compounds are studied. The doctorial dissertation is divided into four main parts. In the first and second part of dissertation, model compounds (standards of cellulose and sugars and chestnut tannins) were primarly used in order to better understand processes of real biomass material. The degradation of cellulose and different sugars was performed in batch reactor with subcritical water. The different reaction temperatures and times were used. The main phases, such as water-soluble fraction, acetone-soluble fraction and solid residue were separated and analysed. The analysis of water-soluble phase was done by HPLC equipped with UV and RI detector, while acetone-soluble phase of cellulose was analysed by GC-MS. Total sugar content was determined by the phenol-sulphuric acid colorimetric method. The properties of char, obtained using cellulose as a treated material, such as: specific surface area, pore volume and pore diameter were determined by gas adsorption method. A water-soluble phase mainly consists of sugar monomers and monomer degradation products such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), furfural, erythrose, sorbitol, 1,6-anhydroglucose, glycolaldehyde, glycerlaldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, pyruvaldehyde, formic, levulinic, lactic, oxalic and succinic acids, while acetone-soluble phase, referred to also as bio-oil, consists of furans, phenols, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones and high molecular compounds. The reaction mechanism of cellulose and sugars in subcritical water has been proposed based on the obtained results. Furthermore, the results from cellulose and sugar hydrothermal degradation were utilized in further work to determine which industrially interesting products could be obtained by hydrothermal processing of paper waste in subcritical water. The optimum conditions ( temperature and reaction time), which gave us the highest yield of base chemicals (furfural, 5-HMF, levulinic acid) were determined. Sweet chestnut (Castanea Sativa) bark contains high level of tannins and various phenolic compounds which can be utilized in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, nutritional and medical purposes. The sweet chestnut tannins extract and sweet chestnut bark were used as materials highly rich in bioactive compounds for subcritical water processes which are presented in the second part of doctorial dissertation, respectively. The spectrophotometric methods were used to determine total tannins, phenols and carbohydrates content and antioxidant activity. The identified compounds were ellagic and gallic acid, ellagitannins (vescalagin, castalagin, 1-o-galloyl castalagin, vescalin and castalin), sugars (maltose, glucose, fructose and arabinose) and sugar derivatives (5-HMF, furfural and levulinic acid). The results obtained from hydrothermal hydrolysis were compared to results from acid hydrolysis. Finally, the optimization of reaction parameters of subcritical water processes has been done aiming to obtain the product highly rich in ellagic acid. Subcritical water extraction of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) parts such as seeds, seed shell, bark and leaves was described in the third chapter of dissertation. The detected compounds in extracts, such as escins, esculin, fraxin, phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, neochlorogenic and gallic acids) and furfurals (5-hydroxymethyfurfural, furfural, and methylfufrual) are quantified using HPLC. The last part of dissertation proposes extraction of cocoa shell using green technologies (supercritical CO2 and subcritical water extraction) and also conventional methods (Soxhlet extraction with hexane and extraction with 50 % acetone) to obtain bioactive compounds in order to compare the results. The detected compouns were methylxanthines, phenolic compounds, sugars, fatty acids.
Ključne besede: Subcritical water, biomass, biowaste, extraction, hydrothermal degradation, hydrolysis, bioactive compounds.
Objavljeno v DKUM: 16.10.2020; Ogledov: 1687; Prenosov: 157
.pdf Celotno besedilo (6,32 MB)

Jana Simonovska, 2016, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) as widely distributed vegetable crop in the world is an excellent source of nutritive and biologically active compounds. The characteristic compounds, capsaicinoids and carotenoids, highlight the importance of the red hot pepper varieties and their oleoresin extracts in the food and pharmaceutical industry. In the Ph.D. thesis was studied the possibility for a separate and integral utilization of the red hot pepper for obtaining the oleoresins from pericarp, placenta, seeds and stalk. Pre-treatment of the raw material (drying, separation of anatomical structures i.e. pericarp, placenta and seeds, and determination of theirs physico-chemical characteristics and determination of the he characteristic bioactive compounds: capsaicinoids, carotenoids and volatiles was studied, also. The second part of the Ph.D. thesis was focused of the determination of the optimal conditions for isolation of the bioactive capsaicinoids and coloured compounds, through comparative following of the thermodynamical parameters by application of organic solvents and supercritical fluids. Influence of the working parameters: temperature, time, pressure, solid to liquid phase ratio, density, type of solvents, and particle size of raw material on the yield of extract and content of capsaicinoids, colour compounds and volatiles was studied. Modelling of the experimental phase data by application of mathematical methods was performed. Re-utilization of seed and stalk from red hot pepper in form of extracts for development of new formulations as edible films, biopesticides and nanoemulsions was studied, also.
Ključne besede: red hot pepper, pericarp, placenta, seed, stalk, extraction, sub- and supercritical fluids, bioactive compounds, volatiles, re-utilization, edible films, biopesticides, nanoemulsions
Objavljeno v DKUM: 08.11.2016; Ogledov: 2195; Prenosov: 168
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,71 MB)

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