Phenols, proanthocyanidins, flavones and flavonols in some plant materials and their antioxidant activitiesMojca Škerget
, Petra Kotnik
, Majda Hadolin Kolar
, Andreja Rižner Hraš
, Marjana Simonič
, Željko Knez
, 2005, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: Methanol extracts prepared from five plant materials native to the Mediterranean area, namely olive tree (Olea europaea) leaf, St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata), oregano (Origanum vulgare) and laurel leaf (Lauris nobilis), were examined for their phenolic components. Total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The content of proanthocyanidins in acid-hydrolysed extracts was determined spectrophotometrically. The contents of free flavones (apigenin andluteolin) and flavonols (kaempferol, myricetin and quercetin) were determined by HPLC analysis. The time of hydrolysis of flavones, flavonols andproanthocyanidins was optimised. Antioxidant activities of apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin and of plant extracts were examined. Antioxidative activities were studied in sunflower oil at 98 °C, by measuring peroxide value, and in an aqueous emulsion system of -carotene and linoleic acid by measuring the absorbance of the sample. Among flavones and flavonols investigated, only myricetin inhibited oxidation of sunflower oil. All other flavones and flavonols showed pro-oxidative activity. Oppositely, in the emulsion system, only apigenin showed pro-oxidative activity while otherflavones and flavonols and plant extracts inhibited oxidation of -carotene.
Ključne besede: chemical processing, extraction, plant material, fenolic content, hidrolysis, antioxidants, flavones, flavonols, proanthocyanidines, oils, emulsions
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 986; Prenosov: 9
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Isolation and concentration of natural antioxidants with high-pressure extractionMajda Hadolin Kolar
, Andreja Rižner Hraš
, Davorin Bauman
, Željko Knez
, 2004, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: In present work, the purification of crude rosemary extract with supercritical fluids is presented. Carbon dioxide was used as a solvent. The crude extract was prepared from rosemary with conventional extraction process. The supercritical CO2 extraction of crude extracts was performed at pressures 10 and 20 MPa and temperatures 35 and 60 °C. The best results were obtained at pressure 10 MPa and temperature 35 °C. The content of carnosic acid in the samples before and after high pressure extraction was identified by high performance liquid chromatography. The content of carnosic acid in purified extract is higher compared to crude extract. The antioxidative efficiency of extracts was determined by measuring peroxide value. Activity ofpurified rosemary extracts is higher compared to crude extracts.
Ključne besede: chemical processing, high pressure technology, extraction, CO2, natural antioxidants, rosemary extract, food additives
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 931; Prenosov: 14
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Subcritical water as a green medium for extraction and processing of natural materialsMatej Ravber
, 2016, doktorska disertacija
Opis: In this doctoral dissertation, the application of subcritical water as a green medium for
the extraction and processing of natural materials is presented. The work is divided into three
main parts. In the first part, subcritical water is proposed as a solvent for the simultaneous
extraction of oil- and water-soluble phase from oily seeds. The extraction parameters, such as
temperature, time and material to solvent ratio that yield the highest amounts of both phases
are examined. The quality of both obtained phases is examined. The characteristics of oils
obtained using subcritical water is compared to that obtained using a conventional method.
The second part of this work proposes subcritical water as an efficient solvent for the
isolation of bioactive phenolic compounds from wood waste, that is produced by the forestry
industry. Different wood fractions are firstly extracted in batch-mode and the fraction with the
highest amounts of bioactive compounds is determined. Next, semi-continuous operation is
applied, where the effects of different extraction parameters are studied on the extraction yield
and quality of the extract. The effect of temperature and ethanol addition to the subcritical
water on the content of single phenolic compounds identified in the extracts is observed.
Lastly, the cost of manufacturing of such a product is estimated by evaluating the economics
of different pilot- and industrial-scale processes operating at optimal conditions determined
on the laboratory scale.
The last part proposes the use of subcritical water as an efficient hydrolytic medium
for glycoside bonded antioxidants, specifically those found in waste agro-industrial sources.
Effect of temperature, treatment time, concentration and the atmosphere used for establishing
the pressure in the reactor are first studied on a model glycoside compound - rutin and the
optimal combination of reaction parameters are established for the batch-mode reactor. The
degradation products of the model compound are identified and the concentration/time profiles
of their degradation are observed. Furthermore, the reaction kinetics explaining the
degradation of the rutin standard are evaluated. In the next step, the method is implemented
on a real glycosides-containing extract. The extract is hydrolyzed at conditions obtained from
the first step and the free aglycone is obtained at the highest yields possible. Lastly, the process
is upgraded to continuous operation and the final hydrolyzed high-purity product is recovered.
Ključne besede: Subcritical water, Biowaste, Extraction, Hydrolysis, Antioxidants, Hydrothermal degradation.
Objavljeno: 16.06.2016; Ogledov: 502; Prenosov: 105
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Polyphenols: extraction methods, antioxidative action, bioavailability and anticarcinogenic effectsEva Brglez Mojzer
, Maša Knez Hrnčič
, Mojca Škerget
, Željko Knez
, Urban Bren
, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: Being secondary plant metabolites, polyphenols represent a large and diverse group of substances abundantly present in a majority of fruits, herbs and vegetables. The current contribution is focused on their bioavailability, antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. An overview of extraction methods is also given, with supercritical fluid extraction highlighted as a promising eco-friendly alternative providing exceptional separation and protection from degradation of unstable polyphenols. The protective role of polyphenols against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, UV light, plant pathogens, parasites and predators results in several beneficial biological activities giving rise to prophylaxis or possibly even to a cure for several prevailing human diseases, especially various cancer types. Omnipresence, specificity of the response and the absence of or low toxicity are crucial advantages of polyphenols as anticancer agents. The main problem represents their low bioavailability and rapid metabolism. One of the promising solutions lies in nanoformulation of polyphenols that prevents their degradation and thus enables significantly higher concentrations to reach the target cells. Another, more practiced, solution is the use of mixtures of various polyphenols that bring synergistic effects, resulting in lowering of the required therapeutic dose and in multitargeted action. The combination of polyphenols with existing drugs and therapies also shows promising results and significantly reduces their toxicity.
Ključne besede: polyphenols, extraction, antioxidants, bioavailability, synergistic effects
Objavljeno: 22.06.2017; Ogledov: 99; Prenosov: 11
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Comparison of methods for determination of polyphenols in wine by HPLC-UV/VIS, LC/MS/MS and spectrophotometryVesna Bukovac
, Matija Strlič
, Drago Kočar
, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: Phenolic antioxidants are usually grouped into flavonoids and non-flavonoids, according to their structure. With regard to the tannic character, phenolic antioxidants are further subdivided to tannic phenols and non-tannic phenols. Collectively, these compounds contribute to the high antioxidant capacity of wine.
In this work, we compare determination of gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, resveratrol, quercetin, dihydrobenzoic acid, sinapic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferullic acid, ellagic acid, p-coumaric acid and caftaric acid in 141 wine samples using two liquid chromatographic methods and detection systems, i.e. with UV detection and mass-spectrometric detection. In addition, we applied the conventional Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method for determination of the total phenolic content in wine samples and compared the results with those obtained using the chromatographic methods.
Despite satisfactory correlations statistically significant differences between HPLC-UV/VIS and LC/MS/MS were established, which could be related to coelution not detectable with UV/VIS detectors. The correlations between results of the spectrophotometric method and sum of LC/MS/MS determinations are not satisfactory and are different for white, red, and rosé wines.
Ključne besede: food analysis, wine, antioxidants, chromatography
Objavljeno: 17.08.2017; Ogledov: 115; Prenosov: 6
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Antioxidant defences of Norway spruce bark against bark beetles and its associated blue-stain fungusMateja Felicijan
, Metka Novak
, Nada Kraševec
, Andreja Urbanek Krajnc
, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: Bark beetles and their fungal associates are integral parts of forest ecosystems, the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus Linnaeus, 1758) and the associated pathogenic blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica (SIEM.) C. MOREAU, are the most devastating pests regarding Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) H. KARST.]. Bark beetles commonly inhabit weakened and felled trees as well as vital trees. They cause physiological disorders in trees by destroying a phloem and cambium or interrupt the transpiration -ow in the xylem. Conifers have a wide range of effective defence mechanisms that are based on the inner bark anatomy and physiological state of the tree. The basic function of bark defences is to protect the nutrient-and energy-rich phloem, the vital meristematic region of the vascular cambium, and the transpiration -ow in the sapwood. The main area of defence mechanisms is secondary phloem, which is physically and chemically protected by polyphenolic parenchyma (PP) cells, sclerenchyma, calcium oxalate crystals and resin ducts. Conifer trunk pest resistance includes constitutive, inducible defences and acquired resistance. Both constitutive and inducible defences may deter beetle invasion, impede fungal growth and close entrance wounds. During a successful attack, systemic acquired resistance (SAR) becomes effective and represents a third defence strategy. It gradually develops throughout the plant and provides a systemic change within the whole tree’s metabolism, which is maintained over a longer period of time. The broad range of defence mechanisms that contribute to the activation and utilisation of SAR, includes antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, which are generally linked to the actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The presented review discusses the current knowledge on the antioxidant defence strategies of spruce inner bark against the bark beetle (Ips typographus) and associated blue stain fungus (Ceratocystis polonica).
Ključne besede: antioxidants, ascorbate-glutathione system, blue-stain fungus, Norway spruce, phenolics, systemic acquired resistance
Objavljeno: 14.11.2017; Ogledov: 26; Prenosov: 2
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