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Antibacterial effect of topically administered tranexamic acid in large joint arthroplasty
Urban Slokar, Simon Kovač, Andrej Cör, Katja Šuster, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a synthetic derivative of the amino acid lysine and is commonly used as an antifibrinolytic agent in large joint surgery, such as knee arthroplasty, to minimize blood loss and its associated complications. Some studies have suggested that perioperative intravenous TXA application lowers the incidence of postoperative infections after hip and knee arthroplasty. While its effects on bacteria are not its primary purpose, more research is needed further to elucidate the extent of TXA’s impact on bacterial inhibition and its clinical relevance. In order to determine possible inhibitory effects, 22 clinically relevant bacterial strains were exposed to different TXA concentrations. Two different assays were performed: a microdilution assay with traditional endpoint measurements and a kinetic growth assay for a time-dependent susceptibility assessment. With the microdilution technique, a growth inhibitory effect became evident at higher TXA concentrations (50 and 100 mg/mL) on eight tested bacterial strains, of which four demonstrated absence of growth at 100 mg/mL, suggesting minimal inhibitory concentration. However, the kinetic growth assay revealed more specific TXA-induced dynamic changes in the bacterial growth of all tested bacterial strains. This study showed that TXA affects the growth dynamics of bacteria by altering their lag phase duration, exponential growth rate, and population density and may contribute to the prevention of implant-associated infections.
Ključne besede: tranexamic acid, bacterial growth, antimicrobial effect, topical administration, arthroplasty
Objavljeno v DKUM: 19.04.2024; Ogledov: 57; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,96 MB)
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Probiotics and their antimicrobial effect
Sabina Fijan, 2023, drugi znanstveni članki

Ključne besede: probiotics, antimicrobial, microbiological methods
Objavljeno v DKUM: 16.04.2024; Ogledov: 117; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (217,24 KB)
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Bioactive functional nanolayers of chitosan-lysine surfactant with single- and mixed-protein-repellent and antibiofilm properties for medical implants
Urban Ajdnik, Lidija Fras Zemljič, Olivija Plohl, Lourdes Pérez, Janja Trček, Matej Bračič, Tamilselvan Mohan, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Medical implant-associated infections resulting from biofilm formation triggered by unspecific protein adsorption arethe prevailing cause of implant failure. However, implant surfaces rendered with multifunctional bioactive nanocoatings offer apromising alternative to prevent the initial attachment of bacteria and effectively interrupt biofilm formation. The need to researchand develop novel and stable bioactive nanocoatings for medical implants and a comprehensive understanding of their properties incontact with the complex biological environment are crucial. In this study, we developed an aqueous stable and crosslinker-freepolyelectrolyte−surfactant complex (PESC) composed of a renewable cationic polysaccharide, chitosan, a lysine-based anionicsurfactant (77KS), and an amphoteric antibiotic, amoxicillin, which is widely used to treat a number of infections caused by bacteria.We successfully introduced the PESC as bioactive functional nanolayers on the“model”and“real”polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)surfaces under dynamic and ambient conditions. Besides their high stability and improved wettability, these uniformly depositednanolayers (thickness: 44−61 nm) with mixed charges exhibited strong repulsion toward three model blood proteins (serumalbumin,fibrinogen, andγ-globulin) and their competitive interactions in the mixture in real-time, as demonstrated using a quartzcrystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The functional nanolayers with a maximum negative zeta potential (ζ:−19 to−30mV at pH 7.4), water content (1628−1810 ng cm−2), and hydration (low viscosity and elastic shear modulus) correlated with themass, conformation, and interaction nature of proteins. In vitro antimicrobial activity testing under dynamic conditions showed thatthe charged nanolayers actively inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcusaureus) bacteria compared to unmodified PDMS. Given the ease of fabrication of multifunctional and charged biobased coatingswith simultaneous protein-repellent and antimicrobial activities, the limitations of individual approaches could be overcome leadingto a better and advanced design of various medical devices (e.g., catheters, prosthetics, and stents).
Ključne besede: silicone implants, protein-repellent, antimicrobial, chitosan, lysine, bioactive coatings, adsorption, QCM-D
Objavljeno v DKUM: 15.04.2024; Ogledov: 133; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,24 MB)
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Fabrication of poly(ethylene furanoate)/silver and titanium dioxide nanocomposites with improved thermal and antimicrobial properties
Johan Stanley, Eleftheria Xanthopoulou, Lidija Fras Zemljič, Panagiotis A. Klonos, Apostolos Kyritsis, Dimitra A. Lambropoulou, Dimitrios Bikiaris, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Poly(ethylene furanoate) (PEF)-based nanocomposites were fabricated with silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles by the in-situ polymerization method. The importance of this research work is to extend the usage of PEF-based nanocomposites with improved material properties. The PEF-Ag and PEF-TiO2 nanocomposites showed a significant improvement in color concentration, as determined by the color colorimeter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photographs revealed the appearance of small aggregates on the surface of nanocomposites. According to crystallinity investigations, neat PEF and nanocomposites exhibit crystalline fraction between 0–6%, whereas annealed samples showed a degree of crystallinity value above 25%. Combining the structural and molecular dynamics observations from broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) measurements found strong interactions between polymer chains and nanoparticles. Contact angle results exhibited a decrease in the wetting angle of nanocomposites compared to neat PEF. Finally, antimicrobial studies have been conducted, reporting a significant rise in inhibition of over 15% for both nanocomposite films against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. From the overall results, the synthesized PEF-based nanocomposites with enhanced thermal and antimicrobial properties may be optimized and utilized for the secondary packaging (unintended food-contact) materials.
Ključne besede: active agents, antimicrobial studies, biobased polymers, crystallinity, poly(ethylene 2, 5-furandicarboxylate)
Objavljeno v DKUM: 03.04.2024; Ogledov: 104; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,13 MB)
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Extending the protection ability and life cycle of medical masks through the washing process
Julija Volmajer Valh, Tanja Pušić, Mirjana Čurlin, Ana Knežević, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The reuse of decontaminated disposable medical face masks can contribute to reducing the environmental burden of discarded masks. This research is focused on the effect of household and laboratory washing at 50 °C on the quality and functionality of the nonwoven structure of polypropylene medical masks by varying the washing procedure, bath composition, disinfectant agent, and number of washing cycles as a basis for reusability. The barrier properties of the medical mask were analyzed before and after the first and fifth washing cycle indirectly by measuring the contact angle of the liquid droplets with the front and back surface of the mask, further by measuring air permeability and determining antimicrobial resistance. Additional analysis included FTIR, pH of the material surface and aqueous extract, as well as the determination of residual substances—surfactants—in the aqueous extract of washed versus unwashed medical masks, while their aesthetic aspect was examined by measuring their spectral characteristics. The results showed that household washing had a stronger impact on the change of some functional properties, primarily air permeability, than laboratory washing. The addition of the disinfectant agent, didecyldimethylammonium chloride, contributes to the protective ability and supports the idea that washing of medical masks under controlled conditions can preserve barrier properties and enable reusability.
Ključne besede: medical masks, washing, detergent, didecyldimethylammonium chloride, air permeability, antimicrobial activity, residuals
Objavljeno v DKUM: 15.03.2024; Ogledov: 193; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,67 MB)
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Antimicrobial resistance of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter species originating from vinegars
Eva Cepec, Janja Trček, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Consumers’ preference towards healthy and novel foods dictates the production of organic unfiltered bottled vinegar that still contains acetic acid bacteria. After ingesting vinegar, the bacteria come into close contact with the human microbiota, creating the possibility of horizontal gene transfer, including genetic determinants for antibiotic resistance. Due to the global spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), we analyzed the AMR of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter species originating mainly from vinegars. Six antibiotics from different structural groups and mechanisms of action were selected for testing. The AMR was assessed with the disk diffusion method using various growth media. Although the number of resistant strains differed among the growth media, 97.4%, 74.4%, 56.4%, and 33.3% of strains were resistant to trimethoprim, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol, respectively, on all three media. Moreover, 17.9% and 53.8% of all strains were resistant to four and three antibiotics of different antimicrobial classes, respectively. We then looked for antimicrobial resistance genes in the genome sequences of the reference strains. The most common genetic determinant potentially involved in AMR encodes an efflux pump. Since these genes pass through the gastrointestinal tract and may be transferred to human microbiota, further experiments are needed to analyze the probability of this scenario in more detail.
Ključne besede: acetic acid bacteria, Acetobacter, Komagataeibacter, antimicrobial resistance, trimethoprim resistance, erythromycin resistance, ciprofloxacin resistance, chloramphenicol resistance, ampicillin resistance, gentamicin resistance
Objavljeno v DKUM: 24.08.2023; Ogledov: 370; Prenosov: 32
.pdf Celotno besedilo (444,89 KB)
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