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The impact of structure on the undrained shear strength of cohesive soils
Bojana Dolinar, Ludvik Trauner, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The relationship between the undrained shear strength and the water content ofcohesive soils can be described with a two parameter non-linear function. Parameter a is the water content at the undrained shear strength su=1 kPa, andb is the slope of the linear function which represents the ratio between the water content logarithm and the undrained shear strength logarithm. These parameters depend mainly on the type and amount of clay minerals in the soils,the particle sizes and shapes, their arrangements, the forces between the clay particles, and the chemical composition of the pore water. The impactof quantity, type and size of clay grains on the water content at a uniform undrained shear strength in different soils has been studied previously, whilst the impact of structure is less understood. Particle associations and arrangements (i.e. fabric), and the interparticle forces determine the structure of soil. This paper focuses on an investigation of therelationship between water content and undrained shear strength in kaolinite samples with different structures. The various arrangements of clay particles that resulted from the changed of interparticle forces were obtainedby salt addition (NaCl). Microfabrics of wet kaolinite samples were studied using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The results showed that clay structure exerts a strong influence on the relationship between the quantity of water and undrained shear strength. This was reflectedin the values of both soil-dependent parameters, a and b. Values of parameter a varied between 39.16% and 62.96%, and b between 0.100 and 0.139, for well crystallized kaolinite with salt concentrations of 0- 175 mmol/l. Forpoorly crystallized kaolinite with salt concentrations of 0-300 mmol/l, thevalues of a range between 46.96% and 100.30%, and b between 0.090% and 0.148%.
Ključne besede: geomechanics, clay, kaolonite, structure, fabric, undrained shear strength
Objavljeno: 31.05.2012; Ogledov: 1347; Prenosov: 64
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Some aspects of fabric drape
Darja Žunič-Lojen, Simona Jevšnik, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Drape is one of the important factors influencing the aesthetics and functionality of fabrics. Therefore, investigation into drape parameters is important for analysing its behaviour. Drape parameters were investigated from different aspects using the Cusick Drape meter and Image Analyser. Firstly, the influence of time on the drape coefficient and number of folds was studied over 24 hours. Usually, drape is considered as a static, time-independent problem. However, this investigation shows that the drape coefficient of a fabric changes si-gnificantly over a longer time period. Furthermore, the comparison of drape parameters is shown using samples with two different diameters. The larger samples have smaller drape coefficient than those with smaller diameters, and their drape is less changeable over time. Basically, the three-dimensional fabric drape is not an independent fabric property, there-fore, the connection between bending rigidity and drapecoefficient was studied. The last aspect of this investigation was the repeatability of drape measurements, and the establish-ment of the required number of measurements for drape coefficient and fold numbers.
Ključne besede: fabric drape, drape parameters, time-dependence, bending rigidity, measurement repeatibility
Objavljeno: 31.05.2012; Ogledov: 981; Prenosov: 29
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Prediction of the ultraviolet protection of cotton woven fabrics dyed with reactive dystuffs
Polona Dobnik-Dubrovski, Miran Brezočnik, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Textile materials provide a simple and convenient protection against UV radiation. To assign the degree of UV radiation protection of textile materials, the Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) is commonly used. This paper reports the effect of woven fabric construction (yarn fineness, type of weave, relative fabric density), the colour of bi-functional reactive dyestuffs, and Cibacron dyed fabrics on the ultraviolet protection of light summer woven fabrics. A predictive model, determined by genetic programming, was derived to describe the influence of fabric construction. Warp and weft densities, weave factor and CIELab colour components were taken into account by developing the prediction model for UPF. The results show very good agreement between the experimental and predicted values.
Ključne besede: ultraviolet protection factor, woven fabric construction, colour, prediction model, genetic programming
Objavljeno: 31.05.2012; Ogledov: 1110; Prenosov: 30
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The advance engineering methods to plan the behaviour of fused panel
Simona Jevšnik, Jelka Geršak, Ivan Gubenšek, 2005, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The purpose of this paper is to analyse some mechanical properties and parameters of drapability using different methods from two different points of research area: knowledge bases and numerical modelling using the finite element method. The approach consists of analysing some mechanical properties and parameters of drapability using different methods from two different points of research areaČ knowledge bases and numerical modelling using the finite element method. The knowledge bases, named FP_B-1 and FPO_B-2, were used to analyse the bending rigidity of fused panels. The numerical model of fused panel NMFP is used to analyse parameters of drapability. Findings - Based on the analyses of bending rigidity and draping of fused panels the conclusions indicate the significance of interaction between mechanical properties and parameters of drapability of thefused panel to garment appearance. Furthermore, the methods used present a computer approach to the study of the fused panel properties important for thecomputer-based engineering and the presentation of real behaviour of all aspects of clothes. This numerical model of a fused panel enables a 3D observation of this aspect of clothes which is a behaviour, very important contribution to the computer planning of the behaviour of produced clothes. Originality is in a better understanding of how to construct fused panels in clothing.
Ključne besede: clothing engineering, fabric mechanics, fusible interlining, fused panels, drapability, knowledge base, FEM
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 944; Prenosov: 66
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Evaluating the bending rigidity of flat textiles with the use of an Instron tensile tester
Mirosława Kocik, Witold Żurek, Izabella Krucinska, Jelka Geršak, Jan Jakubczyk, 2005, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The purpose of this work is to verify the possibility of using an Instron tensile tester for evaluating those mechanical properties of flat textile fabrics which are responsible for their handle properties. A method of evaluating the bending rigidity of woven fabrics was developed. The method consists in axially compressing samples fixed at both ends and placed in a vertical position, which leads to their buckling. The bending rigidity was determined on the basis of the critical maximum force occurring at buckling, and the curvature of the buckled sample which appears as result of the action of this force. The results obtained by this method were compared with those obtained with the use of the FAST system. The good compatibility of both these methods was proved by the correlation coefficients.
Ključne besede: flat textiles, mechanical properties, measurements, fabric handle, bending rigidity, bending moment, curvature, buckling, buckling length
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1000; Prenosov: 26
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Effects of woven fabric construction and color on ultraviolet protection
Polona Dobnik-Dubrovski, Darko Golob, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This paper presents the effects of woven fabric construction and color on the ultraviolet protection factor. Weave type, fabric tightness, cover factor, volume porosity and color of lightweight summer woven fabrics were observed in this research. Color had the biggest influence on the ultraviolet protectionfactor of fabrics, whereas woven fabric construction was essential when light pastel colored fabrics were used as ultraviolet protection. This work provides guidelines for engineering woven cotton fabrics with sufficient ultraviolet protection.
Ključne besede: color, UV protection, woven fabric construction
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1172; Prenosov: 70
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Good quality printing with reactive dyes using guar gum and biodegradable additives
Reinhold Schneider, Sonja Šostar-Turk, 2003, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In printing with reactive dyes sodium alginates or synthetic thickeners are typically used as thickening agents to prevent unacceptable fabric handle. A new reactive printing process for reactive dyes on cellulosic textiles has been developed using natural thickening agents and environmental-friendly additives. Printing trials with guar gums have shown that the use of differentadditives can prevent fabric stiffness. These additives have no significant influence on rheology and colour strength but contributed to soft fabric handle even when guar gums were used as thickening agent. The use of additives and guar gum provide good quality prints with reduced wastewater pollution.
Ključne besede: textile printing, guar gum, additives, fabric handle, printing quality, ecology, environmental protection
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1536; Prenosov: 54
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Review of computer models for fabric simulation
Simona Jevšnik, Fatma Kalaoğlu, Sena Terliksiz, Jure Purgaj, 2014, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: 3D computer technologies are closely linked to all textile fields ranging from the designing and constructing of fabrics and garments, virtual human body presentations, interactive virtual prototyping to virtual fashion shows and e-trading. This paper offers a review of frequently used methods for fabric simulation. The review is divided into two parts. The first part of the paper comprises currently used techniques, followed by the presentation of basic terms and fabric parameters required for fabric simulations. The second part discusses the approaches and methods for constructing computer models of fabrics. In conclusion, the list of used techniques and parameters for defining a computer fabric model are presented together with given future guidance.
Ključne besede: CAD/CAM in textiles, fabric simulations, fabric models
Objavljeno: 21.12.2015; Ogledov: 536; Prenosov: 268
.pdf Celotno besedilo (386,03 KB)
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Hemicelluloses application for synthetic polymer surfaces functionalisation
Nena Dimitrušev, 2016, doktorska disertacija

Opis: The main aim of this thesis was development of thin functional layers from hemicelluloses xylans on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces. Hemicelluloses, xylans, as renewable polymers, were chemically modified in order to introduce anionic and cationic functional groups. Two types of chemical modifications were performed: carboxymethylation in order to increase anionic nature of xylans and improve their hydrophilic character and cationization for introducing of amino groups and antimicrobial characteristics. Both types of modifications were successful, which was proved by ATR FTIR and raman techniques, elemental analysis, total bound nitrogen determination, size exclusion chromatography and polyelectrolyte titrations. Polyelectrolyte titration results showed increased amounts of deprotonated carboxyl groups in carboxymethylated xylans as well as increased amounts of protonated groups in cationized xylans. Antimicrobial activity of xylans was investigated by the determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans and it was found out that the samples with higher amounts of active amino groups showed lower MIC. Cationised glucuronoxylan showed significantly higher antimicrobial activities against S. aureus in comparison to cationised arabinoxylan and nonmodified xylan samples. However, none of xylan samples was active against fungi. In order to analyze surface properties of solid surfaces, films from xylan (nonmodified and modified) water solution was formed by casting method. The surface chemical composition of films were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the results showed that films made from carboxymethylated xylans had significantly higher amounts of carbon fraction involved in O=C-O bonds, compared to nonmodified xylans. Such surface chemical structure caused higher surface free energy with higher electron-donor contribution and thus high hydrophilicity of these films. Films made by cationized xylans had higher amount of carbon involved in C-C and C-H bonds compared to nonmodified and lower surface free energy with increase of dispersive Lifshitz Van der Waals contribution. In order to thoroughly investigate the adsorption of xylans onto synthetic surfaces Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation unit (QCM-D) was used. For these measurements model films were prepared from PET by spin coating technique. Adsorption studies were performed at different conditions, such as pH, concentration and ionic strength of xylan solutions. For all the chemically modified xylans the adsorption was improved at pH 5 and with increased ionic strength with divalent ions. The adsorption increased as well with increasing of xylan solution concentration. In order to improve binding of adsorbed xylans so-called anchoring polymers were applied. When anchoring polymers were applied, better adsorption and fixation of adsorbed layer was confirmed, thus the adsorbed masses of xylans after rinsing with water were significantly higher in comparison to the adsorption without immediate anchoring layer. On the basis of these results, real PET fabric surfaces were treated using chemically modified xylans. The xylan solutions were applied onto PET fabric samples using spray coating technique, which is the best approximate to the large-scale procedures. In the first step, PET fabric was activated by alkaline hydrolysis and after that, anchoring agents and carboxymethylated and/or cationized xylans were adsorbed. The success of these treatments was evaluated by the determination of negative and positive charge of the treated PET fabric samples by titration techniques, methylene blue and acid orange 7 adsorption methods, water contact angles and wettability determination. From the potentiometric titrations results it was clearly seen that each new adsorbed layer onto PET fabric totally screened the charge of the former one. FESEM images showed rather thick layers covering the
Ključne besede: hemicellulose, polyethylene terephthalate, glucuronoxylan, arabinoxylan, carboxymethylation, cationization, PET model films, quartz crystal microbalance, PET fabric, surface free energy, wettability, antimicrobial properties
Objavljeno: 11.03.2016; Ogledov: 855; Prenosov: 62
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,53 MB)

Sol-gel/Ag coating and oxygen plasma treatment effect on synthetic wound fluid sorption by non-woven cellulose material
Zdenka Peršin, Tanja Pivec, Miran Mozetič, Karin Stana-Kleinschek, 2017, kratki znanstveni prispevek

Opis: Non-woven cellulose material was functionalized using two techniques, i.e. the coating with AgCl via sol-gel and oxygen plasma. The treatment effects were studied regarding the wound fluid adsorption potential using physiological saline, synthetic exudate and synthetic blood. Plasma treatment was most efficient since a significant improvement by absorbency rate and capacity was evident, less pronounced in case of synthetic blood. The combination of both treatments showed a similar trend, while the effects were less prominent, but still sufficient by managing fluid-associated as well as infected wounds.
Ključne besede: non-woven cellulose fabric, sol-gel, oxygen plasma, absorption, synthetic wound fluids
Objavljeno: 31.08.2017; Ogledov: 317; Prenosov: 191
.pdf Celotno besedilo (86,21 KB)
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