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51.
Self-organization of punishment in structured populations
Matjaž Perc, Attila Szolnoki, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Cooperation is crucial for the remarkable evolutionary success of the human species. Not surprisingly, some individuals are willing to bear additional costs in order to punish defectors. Current models assume that, once set, the fine and cost of punishment do not change over time. Here we show that relaxing this assumption by allowing players to adapt their sanctioning efforts in dependence on the success of cooperation can explain both the spontaneous emergence of punishment and its ability to deter defectors and those unwilling to punish them with globally negligible investments. By means of phase diagrams and the analysis of emerging spatial patterns, we demonstrate that adaptive punishment promotes public cooperation through the invigoration of spatial reciprocity, the prevention of the emergence of cyclic dominance, or the provision of competitive advantages to those that sanction antisocial behavior. The results presented indicate that the process of self-organization significantly elevates the effectiveness of punishment, and they reveal new mechanisms by means of which this fascinating and widespread social behavior could have evolved.
Ključne besede: cooperation, public goods, punishment, phase transitions, physics of social systems
Objavljeno: 03.07.2017; Ogledov: 377; Prenosov: 228
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,22 MB)
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52.
Self-organization towards optimally interdependent networks by means of coevolution
Zhen Wang, Attila Szolnoki, Matjaž Perc, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Coevolution between strategy and network structure is established as a means to arrive at the optimal conditions needed to resolve social dilemmas. Yet recent research has highlighted that the interdependence between networks may be just as important as the structure of an individual network. We therefore introduce the coevolution of strategy and network interdependence to see whether this can give rise to elevated levels of cooperation in the prisonerʼs dilemma game. We show that the interdependence between networks self-organizes so as to yield optimal conditions for the evolution of cooperation. Even under extremely adverse conditions, cooperators can prevail where on isolated networks they would perish. This is due to the spontaneous emergence of a two-class society, with only the upper class being allowed to control and take advantage of the interdependence. Spatial patterns reveal that cooperators, once arriving at the upper class, are much more competent than defectors in sustaining compact clusters of followers. Indeed, the asymmetric exploitation of interdependence confers to them a strong evolutionary advantage that may resolve even the toughest of social dilemmas.
Ključne besede: coevolution, cooperation, interdependent networks, evolutionary games, collective phenomena, self-organization, phase transitions, physics of social systems
Objavljeno: 03.07.2017; Ogledov: 385; Prenosov: 205
.pdf Celotno besedilo (887,51 KB)
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53.
First model-independent Dalitz analysis of $B^0 \to D^0K^{\ast 0}$, $D\to K_S^0\pi ^+\pi ^-$ decay
K. Negishi, Jyoti Prakash Biswal, Marko Bračko, Boštjan Golob, Samo Korpar, Peter Križan, Tara Nanut, Rok Pestotnik, Marko Petrič, Eva Ribežl, Samo Stanič, Marko Starič, Luka Šantelj, Anže Zupanc, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We report a measurement of the amplitude ratio $r_S$ of $B^0 \to D^0K^{\ast 0}$ and $B^0 \to \bar {D^0}K^{\ast 0}$ decays with a Dalitz analysis of $D\to K_S^0\pi ^+\pi ^-$ decays, for the first time using a model-independent method. We set an upper limit $r_S < 0.87$ at the 68% confidence level, using the full data sample of $711\,{\rm fb}^{-1}$ corresponding to $772\times 10^6$ $B\bar {B}$ pairs collected at the $\Upsilon (4S)$ resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB $e^+e^-$ collider. This result is obtained from observables $x_- = +0.4 ^{+1.0 +0.0}_{-0.6 -0.1} \pm 0.0$, $y_- = -0.6 ^{+0.8 +0.1}_{-1.0 -0.0} \pm 0.1$, $x_+ = +0.1 ^{+0.7 +0.0}_{-0.4 -0.1} \pm 0.1$, and $y_+ = +0.3 ^{+0.5 +0.0}_{-0.8 -0.1} \pm 0.1$, where $x_\pm = r_S \cos (\delta _S \pm \phi _3)$, $y_\pm = r_S \sin (\delta _S \pm \phi _3)$, and $\phi _3\ (\delta _S)$ is the weak (strong) phase difference between $B^0 \to D^0K^{\ast 0}$ and $B^0 \to \bar {D^0}K^{\ast 0}$.
Ključne besede: CO2, CO3, Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark-mixing matrix, CP violation, experimental particle physics
Objavljeno: 21.07.2017; Ogledov: 365; Prenosov: 65
.pdf Celotno besedilo (555,01 KB)
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54.
High-statistics study of $K^0_S K^0_S$ pair production in two-photon collisions
S. Uehara, Marko Bračko, Boštjan Golob, Jure Klučar, Samo Korpar, Peter Križan, Rok Pestotnik, Marko Petrič, Marko Starič, Luka Šantelj, Anže Zupanc, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We report a high-statistics measurement of the differential cross section of the process $\gamma \gamma \to K^0_S K^0_S$ in the range $1.05\,{\mathrm {GeV}} \leq W \leq 4.00$ , where W is the center-of-mass energy of the colliding photons, using 972 $^{-1}$ of data collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e− collider operated at and near the $\Upsilon$-resonance region. The differential cross section is fitted by parameterized S-, $D_0$, $D_2$-, $G_0$-, and $G_2$-wave amplitudes. In the $D_2$ wave, the $f_2$(1270), $a_2$(1320), and $f′_2$(1525) are dominant and a resonance, the $f_2$(2200), is also present. The $f_0$(1710) and possibly the $f_0$(2500) are seen in the S wave. The mass, total width, and product of the two-photon partial decay width and decay branching fraction to the $K \bar {K}$ state $\Gamma _{\gamma \gamma }\mathcal {B}(K \bar {K})$ are extracted for the $f′_2$(1525), $f_0$(1710), $f_2$(2200), and $f_0$(2500). The destructive interference between the $f_2$(1270) and $a_2$(1320) is confirmed by measuring their relative phase. The parameters of the charmonium states $\chi _{c0}$ and $\chi _{c2}$ are updated. Possible contributions from the $\chi _{c0}(2P)$ and $\chi _{c2}(2P)$ states are discussed. A new upper limit for the branching fraction of the P- and CP-violating decay channel $\eta _c \to K^0_S K^0_S$ is reported. The detailed behavior of the cross section is updated and compared with QCD-based calculations.
Ključne besede: C00, C05, C07, C21, quantum chromodynamics, quark model, particle properties, lepton collider experiments, experimental particle physics
Objavljeno: 21.07.2017; Ogledov: 335; Prenosov: 33
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,28 MB)
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55.
Measurement of branching fractions for $B \to J/\psi \eta K$ decays and search for a narrow resonance in the $J/\psi \eta$ final state
T. Iwashita, Marko Bračko, Boštjan Golob, Jure Klučar, Samo Korpar, Peter Križan, Rok Pestotnik, Marko Petrič, Marko Starič, Luka Šantelj, Anže Zupanc, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We report an observation of the $B^{\pm } \to J/\psi \eta K^{\pm }$ and $B^0 \to J/\psi \eta K^0_S$ decays using $772\times 10^{6}B\overline {B}$ pairs collected at the $\Upsilon (4S)$ resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy $e^+e^-$ collider. We obtain the branching fractions ${\mathcal B}(B^{\pm }\rightarrow J/\psi \eta K^{\pm })=(1.27\pm 0.11(\hbox {stat.})\pm 0.11(\hbox {syst.}))\times 10^{-4}$ and ${\mathcal B}(B^0\to J/\psi \eta K^0_S)=(5.22 \pm 0.78 (\hbox {stat.}) \pm 0.49 (\hbox {syst.}))\times 10^{-5}$. We search for a new narrow charmonium(-like) state $X$ in the $ J/\psi \eta$ mass spectrum and find no significant excess. We set upper limits on the product of branching fractions, ${\mathcal B}(B^\pm \to XK^\pm){\mathcal B}(X \to J/\psi \eta)$, at $3872\,\hbox {MeV}\,c^{-2}$ where a $C$-odd partner of $X(3872)$ may exist, at $\psi (4040)$ and $\psi (4160)$ assuming their known mass and width, and over a range from 3.8 to $4.8\,\hbox {GeV}\,c^{-2}$. The obtained upper limits at 90% confidence level for $X^{C\hbox {-}{\rm odd}}(3872)$, $\psi (4040)$, and $\psi (4160)$ are $3.8\times 10^{-6}$, $15.5\times 10^{-6}$, and $7.4\times 10^{-6}$, respectively.
Ključne besede: C07, C21, particle properties, lepton collider experiments, experimental particle physics
Objavljeno: 21.07.2017; Ogledov: 335; Prenosov: 66
.pdf Celotno besedilo (372,20 KB)
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56.
Particle identification performance of the prototype aerogel RICH counter for the Belle II experiment
S. Iwata, Samo Korpar, Peter Križan, Rok Pestotnik, Luka Šantelj, Andrej Seljak, Elvedin Tahirović, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We have developed a new type of particle identification device, called an aerogel ring imaging Cherenkov (ARICH) counter, for the Belle II experiment. It uses silica aerogel tiles as Cherenkov radiators. For detection of Cherenkov photons, hybrid avalanche photo-detectors (HAPDs) are used. The designed HAPD has a high sensitivity to single photons under a strong magnetic field. We have confirmed that the HAPD provides high efficiency for single-photon detection even after exposure to neutron and $\gamma$-ray radiation that exceeds the levels expected in the 10-year Belle II operation. In order to confirm the basic performance of the ARICH counter system, we carried out a beam test at the using a prototype of the ARICH counter with six HAPD modules. The results are in agreement with our expectations and confirm the suitability of the ARICH counter for the Belle II experiment. Based on the in-beam performance of the device, we expect that the identification efficiency at $3.5\,{\rm GeV}/c$ is 97.4% and 4.9% for pions and kaons, respectively. This paper summarizes the development of the HAPD for the ARICH and the evaluation of the performance of the prototype ARICH counter built with the final design components.
Ključne besede: H14, elementary particle physics, particle detectors, Belle II detector, ring imaging Cherenkov counters, RICH counters
Objavljeno: 21.07.2017; Ogledov: 372; Prenosov: 241
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,57 MB)
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57.
Correlation of positive and negative reciprocity fails to confer an evolutionary advantage: phase transitions to elementary strategies
Attila Szolnoki, Matjaž Perc, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Economic experiments reveal that humans value cooperation and fairness. Punishing unfair behavioris therefore common, and according to the theory of strong reciprocity, it is also directly related to rewarding cooperative behavior. However, empirical data fail to confirm that positive and negative reciprocity are correlated. Inspired by this disagreement, we determine whether the combined application of reward and punishment is evolutionarily advantageous. We study a spatial public goods game, where in addition to the three elementary strategies of defection, rewarding, and punishment, a fourth strategy that combines the latter two competes for space. We find rich dynamical behavior that gives rise to intricate phase diagrams where continuous and discontinuous phase transitions occur in succession. Indirect territorial competition, spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance, as well as divergent fluctuations of oscillations that terminate in an absorbing phase are observed. Yet, despite the high complexity of solutions, the combined strategy can survive only in very narrow and unrealistic parameter regions. Elementary strategies, either in pure or mixed phases, are much more common and likely to prevail. Our results highlight the importance of patterns and structure in human cooperation, which should be considered in future experiments.
Ključne besede: public goods, punishment, reward, evolutionary games, collective phenomena, phase transitions, physics of social systems
Objavljeno: 03.08.2017; Ogledov: 286; Prenosov: 189
.pdf Celotno besedilo (667,46 KB)
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58.
Second-order free-riding on antisocial punishment restores the effectiveness of prosocial punishment
Attila Szolnoki, Matjaž Perc, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Economic experiments have shown that punishment can increase public goods game contributions over time. However, the effectiveness of punishment is challenged by second-order free-riding and antisocial punishment. The latter implies that noncooperators punish cooperators, while the former implies unwillingness to shoulder the cost of punishment. Here, we extend the theory of cooperation in the spatial public goods game by considering four competing strategies, which are traditional cooperators and defectors, as well as cooperators who punish defectors and defectors who punish cooperators. We show that if the synergistic effects are high enough to sustain cooperation based on network reciprocity alone, antisocial punishment does not deter public cooperation. Conversely, if synergistic effects are low and punishment is actively needed to sustain cooperation, antisocial punishment does is viable, but only if the cost-to-fine ratio is low. If the costs are relatively high, cooperation again dominates as a result of spatial pattern formation. Counterintuitively, defectors who do not punish cooperators, and are thus effectively second-order free-riding on antisocial punishment, form an active layer around punishing cooperators, which protects them against defectors that punish cooperators. A stable three-strategy phase that is sustained by the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance is also possible via the same route. The microscopic mechanism behind the reported evolutionary outcomes can be explained by the comparison of invasion rates that determine the stability of subsystem solutions. Our results reveal an unlikely evolutionary escape from adverse effects of antisocial punishment, and they provide a rationale for why second-order free-riding is not always an impediment to the evolutionary stability of punishment.
Ključne besede: complex systems, interdisciplinary physics, punishment, cooperation
Objavljeno: 13.11.2017; Ogledov: 308; Prenosov: 219
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,15 MB)
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59.
Determinants of public cooperation in multiplex networks
Federico Battiston, Matjaž Perc, Vito Latora, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Synergies between evolutionary game theory and statistical physics have significantly improved our understanding of public cooperation in structured populations. Multiplex networks, in particular, provide the theoretical framework within network science that allows us to mathematically describe the rich structure of interactions characterizing human societies. While research has shown that multiplex networks may enhance the resilience of cooperation, the interplay between the overlap in the structure of the layers and the control parameters of the corresponding games has not yet been investigated. With this aim, we consider here the public goods game on a multiplex network, and we unveil the role of the number of layers and the overlap of links, as well as the impact of different synergy factors in different layers, on the onset of cooperation. We show that enhanced public cooperation emerges only when a significant edge overlap is combined with at least one layer being able to sustain some cooperation by means of a sufficiently high synergy factor. In the absence of either of these conditions, the evolution of cooperation in multiplex networks is determined by the bounds of traditional network reciprocity with no enhanced resilience. These results caution against overly optimistic predictions that the presence of multiple social domains may in itself promote cooperation, and they help us better understand the complexity behind prosocial behavior in layered social systems.
Ključne besede: cooperation, public goods, networks, physics of social systems
Objavljeno: 04.12.2017; Ogledov: 322; Prenosov: 217
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,05 MB)
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60.
Conceptual learning of physics in Slovenian primary schools
Ivan Gerlič, Robert Repnik, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Teaching and learning with computers (ICT) encompasses her help in educational process everywhere there where is this perhaps and reasonable. Using ICT as educated accessory mean search of optimal elements for teaching efficiency and for better achieving teaching objectives. Learning process of science, mathematic and technical subjects in elementary school in many situations demands practically and problem solved work. Conceptual learning of physics is computer based and its strategies lead pupils to a better understanding and use of more difficult processes (thinking, inferencing, using the knowledge). By conceptual way of learning we used "fizlets" as simulatory models. They are interactive materials, where processes happen in certain intervals and there is interaction between the model and the pupil. The main goal of study was to research the effects of conceptual way of learning in comparison with traditional classroom education when teaching the topics "Pressure and lifting power" in the eighth class of primary school. We tested four thinking processes of pupils (knowledge, analyses, inference and comparison). The main expected ascertainment of research was that the pupils, who were taught through the conceptual way achieved better results than those who were taught traditionally in the classroom. Hypotheses were confirmed. In general this article will show other users of teaching physics and science some didactic manners of preparing interactive educated materials.
Ključne besede: education, primary education, educational system, computers in education, ICT, sciences, physics, information technology, communication technology
Objavljeno: 15.12.2017; Ogledov: 355; Prenosov: 38
.pdf Celotno besedilo (823,03 KB)
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