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1.
Tveganje v bančništvu in njihovo upravljanje
Terezija Branda, 2009, diplomsko delo

Opis: Banke igrajo ključno vlogo v nacionalnih ekonomijah večine držav po svetu. Zdrav bančni sistem je pomemben element finančne stabilnosti, ki pomeni osnovo za vzdževanje in razvoj gospodarskega sistema. Osnovna funkcija bančnega sistema je finančno posredništvo: zbiranje finančnih sredstev od tistih, ki imajo presežke in njihovo posojanje tistim podjetjem ali posamezniku, ki jih potrebujejo. Prevzemanje tveganj je neločljivo povezano z bančništvom, pomanjkljivo zavedanje in upravljanje s tveganji pa lahko vodi v izgubo in ogrozi varnost bančnih vlog. Zaradi pomembne vloge v nacionalni ekonomiji in zaupanja, ki ga imajo vlagatelji v banke, morajo te poslovati skrbno in varno ter vzdrževati primeren nivo kapitala in rezervacij za zaščito pred morebitnimi tveganji, ki izhajajo iz poslovanja. Vse banke so v ta namen podvržene nadzoru s strani države za to pooblaščenih institucij. V zadnjih letih je finančni sektor doživel mnogo sprememb. Današnji bančni sistem zaznamujejo predvsem: * naraščajoči obsegi trgovalnih aktivnosti, * razvoj finančnih instrumentov, * pojav globalizacije (24-urni trgi), * povezovanje finančnih institucij, * kompleksni poslovni odnosi z največjimi strankami, * podružnice postajajo prodajna mesta za vrsto različnih produktov, * naraščajoča odvisnost od informacijske tehnologije, * vse bolj zahtevna regulativa. Našteti dejavniki so botrovali vse hitrejšemu razvoju novih finančnih instrumentov, vzporedno s katerimi se pojavljajo nove oblike tveganj, ki so bolj kompleksne in manj transparentne. Če so v preteklosti finančni in računovodski izkazi bank služili kot osnovno orodje za ocenjevanje varnosti in finančne moči banke, postaja danes njihova izrazna moč v smislu tveganosti banke vse bolj omejena. Analiza stanj na presežne datume ne zagotavlja več ustrezne slike glede dejanske tveganosti banke. Spremembam bančne prakse mora slediti tudi nadzorna praksa, ki se iz pregleda usklajenosti z zakonodajo razširja na ugotavljanje in ocenjevanje tveganj. Ker pa je tveganje rezultat kombinacije izpostavljenosti pripadajočemu tveganju in zmanjševanju le – tega z notranjimi kontrolami, so predmet ocenjevanja poleg pripadajočega tveganja tudi notranje kontrole. Bančni nadzornik, ki po funkciji sam sicer ni nagnjen k prevzemanju tveganj, razume, da je temelj bančništva v prevzemanju tveganj in da bo banka vedno izpostavljena določenemu obsegu tveganja. Pomembno pri tem pa je, da se banka zaveda tveganja in da ima vzpostavljene ustrezne obrambne mehanizme za njegovo obvladovanje. Banke so zadnja leta izvedle pomembne investicije v razvoj novih metodologij, procedur in kontrol z namenom boljšega identificiranja, merjenja in upravljanja tveganj. Vendar pa vzpostavljanje notranjih kontrol ni enkraten proces, ampak jih je treba redno pregledovati, preverjati in po potrebi nadgrajevati. Upravljanje s kapitalom je zelo pomemben del strateškega planiranja vsake banke. Prenizka raven kapitala lahko banko izpostavlja prekomernemu tveganju propada, po drugi strani pa previsok kapital banko sili k dvigovanju marž in provizij, da bi lahko zagotovila delničarjem primeren donos na vložena sredstva. Banka mora imeti vzpostavljen takšen proces upravljanja s kapitalom, ki bo zajel vsa materialna tveganja, ki se jim izpostavlja in bo pravočasno zaznaval spremembe v posamezni vrsti tveganja in temu ustrezno tudi prilagajal obseg razpoložljivega kapitala. Vzpostavljanje pisne strategije, politike in procedure predstavljajo del notranjih kontrol, ki lahko bistveno zmanjšajo kapitalsko tveganje banke. Interne politike in procedure morajo postati strateški element upravljanja s tveganjem, pri čemer je potrebno doseči, da se bodo dosledno izvajale in ne bodo same sebi namen.
Ključne besede: * advanced measurement approach – napredni pristop * basic indicator approach – enostavni pristop * capital adequacy – kapitalska usreznost * compliance – skladnost s predpisi * inherent risk – pripadajoče tveganje * internal auditing – notranje revidiranje * moral hazard – moralno tveganje * off-site supervision – zunanji nadzor * on-site supervision – notranji nadzor * risk-based supervision – nadzor, ki temelji na tveganju * standardised a
Objavljeno: 03.07.2009; Ogledov: 1807; Prenosov: 182
.pdf Polno besedilo (613,93 KB)

2.
LITERARY FUNCTIONS OF THE OEDIPUS COMPLEX IN THREE TENNESSEE WILLIAMS PLAYS
Anamarija Potočnik, 2011, diplomsko delo

Opis: The Glass Menagerie, A Streetcar Named Desire and Cat on a Hot Tin Roof are the most successful Tennessee Williams' plays and among the most significant plays of the twentieth-century. The psychoanalytic approach was used to analyse the three Williams' plays, since they are full of recurring themes such as social isolation and loneliness and memorable characters with complex personalities. The characters of the Williams' plays are all based on real people from Williams' life or Williams himself, so the comparison to Williams' biography was crucial for the description of characters and for clarification of the literary functions of the Oedipus complex. The paper was not restricted to the Oedipus complex only, but it also included some other psychoanalytical concepts such as declarative memory, object-relational conflict and homosexual panic for better understanding of the characters and literary functions of Oedipus complex in The Glass Menagerie, A Streetcar Named Desire and Cat on a Hot Tin Roof. The plays reveal Williams' life story. The sources of research were the three plays, literature about the author and psychoanalytic articles about Williams and Williams' plays.
Ključne besede: Tennessee Williams, Oedipus complex, The Glass Menagerie, A Streetcar Named Desire, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, psychoanalytical approach.
Objavljeno: 24.01.2011; Ogledov: 2242; Prenosov: 132
.pdf Polno besedilo (381,32 KB)

3.
Dealing with redundancy and inconsistency in constructive geometric constraint solving
David Podgorelec, Borut Žalik, Vid Domiter, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: General constructive geometric constraint solvers are pre-processed by a degree-of-freedom analysis, which enables efficient graph decomposition and recombination. However, all these methods are based on the assumption that structural rigidity automatically assures solvability. In this paper, we show that this assumption fails in numerous, even the most basic, configurations. We introduce several simple but efficient rules aimed to additionally analyse solvability in such cases. Another novelty addresses conditional constraints between three or more geometric parts, rules for their simplification and a redundancy check. All these functionalities are built into our original 2D geometric constraint solver, based on concepts of rigid clusters and constrained-angle (CA) sets.
Ključne besede: geometric constraint solving, computer-aided design, constructive approach, redundant constraints
Objavljeno: 31.05.2012; Ogledov: 650; Prenosov: 1
URL Polno besedilo (0,00 KB)

4.
5.
Optimization of extrusion process by genetic algorithms and conventional techniques
Zoran Jurković, Miran Brezočnik, Branko Grizelj, Vesna Mandić, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The purpose of this research is the determination of the optimal cold forward extrusion parameters with the minimization of tool load as objective. This paper deals with different optimization approaches in order to determine optimal values of logarithmic strain, die angle and friction factor with the purpose to find minimal tool loading obtained by cold forward extrusion process. Two experimental plans based on factorial design of experiment and orthogonal array have been carried out. Classical optimization, according to the response model of extrusion forming force, and the Taguchi approach are presented. The obtained extrusion force model as the fitness function was used to carry out genetic algorithm optimization. Experimental verification of optimal forming parameters with their influences on the forming forces was also performed. The experimental results show an improvement in the minimization of tool loading. The results of optimal forming parameters obtained with different optimization approaches have been compared and based on that the characteristics analysis (features and limitations) of presented techniques.
Ključne besede: metal forming, forward extrusion force optimization, design of experiments, Taguchi approach, genetic algortihm
Objavljeno: 31.05.2012; Ogledov: 820; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Polno besedilo (469,47 KB)

6.
7.
A preliminary study on various implementation approaches of domain-specific language
Tomaž Kosar, Pablo E. Martínez López, Pablo A. Barrientos, Marjan Mernik, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Various implementation approaches for developing a domain-specific language are available in literature. There are certain common beliefs about the advantages/disadvantages of these approaches. However, it is hard to be objective and speak in favor of a particular one, since these implementation approaches are normally compared over diverse application domains. The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical results from ten diverse implementation approaches for domain-specific languages, but conducted using the same representative language. Comparison shows that these discussed approaches differ in terms of the effort need to implement them, however, the effort needed by a programmer to implement a domain-specific language should not be the only factor taken into consideration. Another important factor is the effort needed by an end-user to rapidly write correct programs using the produced domain-specific language. Therefore, this paper also provides empirical results on end-user productivity, which is measured as the lines of code needed to express a domain-specific program, similarity to the original notation, and how error-reporting and debugging are supported in a given implementation.
Ključne besede: domain-specific languages, embedded approach, preprocessing, compiler/interpreter generator, extesible compiler/interpreter
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 571; Prenosov: 5
URL Polno besedilo (0,00 KB)

8.
Critical plane modelling of fatigue initiation under rolling and sliding contact
Matjaž Šraml, Jože Flašker, Iztok Potrč, 2004, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Contact fatigue is a phenomenon of important practical significance for engineering applications involving localized contacts, such as gears, rail wheel system and rolling bearings. The service lifetime of such components is related to damage, which results from the contact fatigue. The process in the material structure that causes this kind of failure is quite complicated. The aim of the present paper is to describe a contact fatigue initiation criterion, based on the critical plane approach for the general contact problem. On the basis of contact stress analysis with modified Hertzian boundary conditions, the loading cycle of characteristic material points in the contact area is determined. The Dang Van damage initiation criterion is based on the critical plane approach, which combines the largest allowable shearing and hydrostatic stresses (tensile and compressive), with an assumed elastic shakedown behaviour and it is used in this work. The material point of initial fatigue damage is then determined at the transition of the loading cycle stresses over the critical plane. The model assumed a homogeneous and elastic material model, without any imperfections or residual stresses, and elastic shakedown is considered. A proper determination of loading cycles and their characteristic values is of significance for contact fatigue initiation analysis. Finally, determination of the most critical material point on or under the contact surface and related number of loading cycles required for fatigue damage initiation is calculated with the strain-life (▫$epsilon$▫-N) method.
Ključne besede: machine elements, contact fatigue, crack initiation, strain life method, critical plane approach, numerical modeling
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 727; Prenosov: 2
URL Polno besedilo (0,00 KB)

9.
Transport and tourism
Stephen Page, 1999, učbenik za višje in visoke šole

Ključne besede: tourism, tourist industry, transport, traffic, travel, multidisciplinary approach, industries, infrastructure, supply, demand, management, services, quality, air traffic, enterprises, directories
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 763; Prenosov: 5
URL Polno besedilo (0,00 KB)

10.
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