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1.
Tylosema esculentum (Marama) tuber and bean extracts are strong antiviral agents against rotavirus infection
Walter Chingwaru, Runner Majinda, Sam Yeboah, Jose Jackson, Petrina Kapewangolo, Kandawa-Shulz, Avrelija Cencič, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Tylosema esculentum (marama) beans and tubers are used as food, and traditional medicine against diarrhoea in Southern Africa. Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of diarrhoea among infants, young children, immunocompromised people, and domesticated animals. Our work is first to determine anti-RV activity of marama bean and tuber ethanol and water extracts; in this case on intestinal enterocyte cells of human infant (H4), adult pig (CLAB) and adult bovine (CIEB) origin. Marama cotyledon ethanolic extract (MCE) and cotyledon water extract (MCW) without RV were not cytotoxic to all cells tested, while seed coat and tuber extracts showed variable levels of cytotoxicity. Marama cotyledon ethanolic and water extracts (MCE and MCW, resp.) (≥0.1 mg/mL), seed coat extract (MSCE) and seed coat water extract (MSCW) (0.01 to 0.001 mg/mL), especially ethanolic, significantly increased cell survival and enhanced survival to cytopathic effects of RV by at least 100% after in vitro co- and pre-incubation treatments. All marama extracts used significantly enhanced nitric oxide release from H4 cells and enhanced TER (Ω/cm2) of enterocyte barriers after coincubation with RV. Marama cotyledon and seed coat extracts inhibited virion infectivity possibly through interference with replication due to accumulation of nitric oxide. Marama extracts are therefore promising microbicides against RV.
Ključne besede: tylusema esculentum, marama, antiviral agents, rotavirus
Objavljeno: 14.06.2017; Ogledov: 39; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,92 MB)

2.
The role of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements in intestinal health
Avrelija Cencič, Walter Chingwaru, 2010, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: New eating habits, actual trends in production and consumption have a healyh, environmental and social impact. The EU is fighting diseases characteristics of a modern age, such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies and dental problems. Developed countries are also faced with problems relatingto aging populations, high energy foods, and unbalanced diets. The potential of nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements in mitigating health problems, especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is discused. Certain members of gut microflora (e.g., probiotic/protective strains) play a role in the host health due to its involvment in nutritional, immunologic and physiologic functions. The potential mechanisms by which nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements may alter a host's health arealso highlighted in this paper. The establishment of novel functional call models of the GI and analytical tools that allow tests in controlled experiments are highly desired for gut research.
Ključne besede: nutraceutical, functional food, food supplement, intestinal health, probiotic, intestinal cell models, gut research
Objavljeno: 22.06.2017; Ogledov: 42; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (276,92 KB)

3.
Antibacterial and anticandidal activity of Tylosema esculentum (marama) extracts
Walter Chingwaru, Gyebi Duodu, Yolandi Van Zyl, Schoeman, Runner Majinda, Sam Yeboah, Jose Jackson, Petrina Kapewangolo, Kandawa-Shulz, Minnaar, Avrelija Cencič, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Bean and tuber extracts of Tylosema esculentum (marama) – an African creeping plant – were obtained using ethanol, methanol and water. Based on information that T. esculentum is used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, the antibacterial and anticandidal effects of tuber and bean extracts were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, ATCC 6538), Mycobacterium terrae (ATCC 15755), Corynebacterium diphtheriae (clinical) and Candida albicans (ATCC 2091). We performed the broth microdilution test for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a method to determine survival of microorganisms after in vitro co-incubation with the highest concentrations of T. esculentum extracts, followed by assessment of colony counts. Ethanol and methanol (phenolic) bean extracts exhibited higher potency against bacteria and yeast than aqueous extracts. Marama bean seed coat crude ethanolic extract (MSCE) and seed coat polyphenolic fractions, especially soluble-bound fraction (MSCIB), were highly antimicrobial against M. terrae, C. diphtheriae and C. albicans. All marama bean polyphenolic fractions, namely cotyledon acidified methanol fraction (MCAM), seed coat acidified methanol fraction (MSCAM), cotyledon insoluble-bound fraction (MCIB), seed coat insoluble-bound fraction (MSCIB), cotyledon-free polyphenolic fraction (MCFP) and seed coat free polyphenolic fraction (MSCFP) had high antimicrobial effects as shown by low respective MIC values between 0.1 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL. These MIC values were comparable to those of control antimicrobials used: amphotericin B (0.5 mg/mL) and cesfulodin (0.1 mg/mL) against C. diphtheriae, streptomycin (1.0 mg/mL) and gentamicin (0.4 mg/mL) against M. terrae, and amphotericin B (0.05 mg/mL) against C. albicans. Marama seed coat soluble-esterified fraction (MSCS) had closer activity to that of cefsulodin against M. terrae. High amounts of phenolic substances, such as gallic acid, especially in the seed coats, as well as high amounts of phytosterols, lignans, certain fatty acids and peptides (specifically protease inhibitors) in the cotyledons contributed to the observed antibacterial and anticandidal activities. Marama extracts, especially phenolic and crude seed coat extracts, had high multi-species antibacterial and anticandidal activities at concentrations comparable to that of some conventional drugs; these extracts have potential use as microbicides.
Ključne besede: marama, Tylosema esculentum, antibacterial activity, anticandidal activity
Objavljeno: 07.08.2017; Ogledov: 25; Prenosov: 3
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,38 MB)

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