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Duality of terrestrial subterranean fauna
Tone Novak, Matjaž Perc, Saška Lipovšek Delakorda, Franc Janžekovič, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Terrestrial animals in subterranean habitats are often classified according to their degree of morphological or ecological specialization to the subterranean environment. The commonly held view is that, as distance into a cave increases, the frequency of morphologically specialized, i.e., troglomorphic, species or ecological specialization will increase. We tested this hypothesis for the fauna in 54 caves in Slovenia-the classical land for subterranean biology. We found that there exist two ecologically well separated terrestrial subsurface faunas: one shallow and one deep. 1) The shallow subterranean fauna, adapted to the terrestrial shallow subterranean habitats (SSHs) in the upper 10 m of subsurface strata, is most diverse. It consists of randomly distributed non-troglobionts and a major group of troglobionts adapted to the soil root zone. 2) The deep subterranean fauna is represented by a minor group of troglobionts, adapted to caves. Troglobionts are strictly divided between the two faunas. There is strong evidence that in karstic ecosystems with deep-rooted vegetation this might be a global pattern, or that in these locations only the shallow subterranean fauna exist.
Ključne besede: endemites, superficial subterranean habitats, trogloxenes, troglophiles, troglobionts
Objavljeno: 04.08.2017; Ogledov: 637; Prenosov: 327
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,94 MB)
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Cold tolerance in terrestrial invertebrates inhabiting subterranean habitats
Tone Novak, Nina Šajna, Estera Antolinc, Saška Lipovšek Delakorda, Dušan Devetak, Franc Janžekovič, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Most organisms are able to survive shorter or longer exposure to sub-zero temperatures. Hypothetically, trogloxenes characterized as not adapted, and troglophiles as not completely adapted to thermally stable subterranean environment, have retained or partially retained their ability to withstand freezing, while most troglobionts have not. We tested this hypothesis experimentally on 37 species inhabiting caves in Slovenia, analyzing their lower lethal temperatures in summer and winter, or for one season, if the species was not present in caves during both seasons. Specimens were exposed for 12 hrs to 1°C-stepwise descending temperatures with 48 hr breaks. In general, the resistance to freezing was in agreement with the hypothesis, decreasing from trogloxenes over troglophiles to troglobionts. However, weak resistance was preserved in nearly all troglobionts, which responded in two ways. One group, withstanding freezing to a limited degree, and increasing freezing tolerance in winter, belong to the troglobionts inhabiting the superficial subterranean habitats. The other group, which equally withstand freezing in summer and winter, inhabit deep subterranean or other thermally buffered subterranean habitats. Data on cold resistance can thus serve as an efficient additional measure of adaptation to particular hypogean environments.
Ključne besede: endemites, superficial subterranean habitats, trogloxenes, troglophiles, troglobionts
Objavljeno: 04.08.2017; Ogledov: 679; Prenosov: 279
.pdf Celotno besedilo (358,59 KB)
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Remarks on Neuroptera of the North-eastern part of Slovenia (Goričko)
Saška Lipovšek Delakorda, Bojana Mencinger Vračko, 2002, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The abundance of spedies of Neuroptera was studied in the traditional cultural landscape of Goričko (NE Slovenia). The insects were collected during 1997-1998 and 1999 at 12 different localities. The green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea sensu lato was the most dominant species in the region. This species was the only one found in cultivated fields in Goričko district
Ključne besede: zoology, Neuroptera, net-winged insects, Goričko, Slovenia
Objavljeno: 03.08.2017; Ogledov: 772; Prenosov: 75
.pdf Celotno besedilo (324,55 KB)
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Malpighian tubule cells in overwintering cave crickets Troglophilus cavicola (Kollar, 1833) and T. neglectus Krauss, 1879 (Rhaphidophoridae, Ensifera)
Saška Lipovšek Delakorda, Tone Novak, Franc Janžekovič, Nina Weiland, Gerd Leitinger, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: During winter, cave cricket larvae undergo dormancy in subterranean habitats; this dormancy is termed diapause in second year Troglophilus cavicola larvae because they mature during this time, and termed quiescence in T. neglectus, because they mature after dormancy. Here we used electron microscopy to analyze ultrastructural changes in the epithelial cells in the Malpighian tubules (MTs) of T. cavicola during diapause, in order to compare them with previous findings on T. neglectus. Moreover, the autophagosomes were studied with immunofluorescence microscopy in both species. Although the basic ultrastructure of the cells was similar, specific differences appeared during overwintering. During this natural starvation period, the nucleus, rER, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria did not show structural changes, and the spherites were exploited. The abundances of autophagic structures in both species increased during overwintering. At the beginning of overwintering, in both species and sexes, the rates of cells with autophagic structures (phagophores, autophagosomes, autolysosomes and residual bodies) were low, while their rates increased gradually towards the end of overwintering. Between sexes, in T. cavicola significant differences were found in the autophagosome abundances in the middle and at the end, and in T. neglectus at the end of overwintering. Females showed higher rates of autophagic cells than males, and these were more abundant in T. cavicola. Thus, autophagic processes in the MT epithelial cells induced by starvation are mostly parallel in diapausing T. cavicola and quiescent T. neglectus, but more intensive in diapausing females.
Ključne besede: cave cricket, overwintering, Troglophilus cavicola, Troglophilus neglectus
Objavljeno: 19.06.2017; Ogledov: 547; Prenosov: 289
.pdf Celotno besedilo (9,29 MB)
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Contribution of non-troglobiotic terrestrial invertebrates to carbon input in hypogean habitats
Tone Novak, Franc Janžekovič, Saška Lipovšek Delakorda, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Eleven of the most important terrestrial invertebrate species in Slovenian caves were analyzed for differences in their fresh and dry biomass, energy content and carbon bulk during winter. These data were combined with the species abundance in 54 caves and adits in order to estimate their organic carbon bulk and carbon input into these habitats. In Central European caves, Troglophilus cavicola, T. neglectus, Faustina illyrica, Amilenus aurantiacus and Scoliopteryx libatrix are the most important vectors of carbon between the epigean and hypogean habitats. In contrast to the general assumption, carbon total contribution to caves via dead bodies is only 0.15% of total migratory biomass, and it is not directly available to troglobionts because of infection with entomopathogenic fungi. In winter, together with predated migratory specimens, carbon input does not exceed 0.3% of the total migratory biomass. This situation should be carefully examined in every karstic region inhabited by distinctive fauna.
Ključne besede: biomass, carbon flux, caves, non-troglobiotic species, organic carbon, respiration
Objavljeno: 21.12.2015; Ogledov: 863; Prenosov: 71
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Larval morphology of the antlion Myrmecaelurus trigrammus (Pallas, 1771) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), with notes on larval biology
Dušan Devetak, Vesna Klokočovnik, Saška Lipovšek Delakorda, Elisabeth Bock, Gerd Leitinger, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Morphology and behaviour of third instar larvae of the Holomediterranean antlion species Myrmecaelurus trigrammus (Pallas) are described. Larvae are facultative pit-builders, they either ambush their prey at the surface, or dig pitfall traps that prey fall in to. Dark brown spots on dorsal and ventral sides of the head and on dorsal side of the thorax are charac-teristic of the larvae. Eye tubercles are not prominent. Jaws are equipped with long bristles, campaniform sensilla, sensilla coeloconica, and digitiform sensilla. A unique feature is the shape of the tips of all three teeth that is screw-like with a polyhedral surface. The body surface is covered with longitudinally grooved bristles and plumose hairs. On the tip of the antennae and on terminal and subterminal parts of labial palps sensilla basiconica occur. On the 9th abdominal segment there are two bulges, each of them bearing four digging bristles. Non-prominent eye tubercles and numerous mandibular bristles are morphological traits of pit-builders. Most of the behavioural traits are related to pit builders, whereas forward movement, waiting for prey without a pit and frequent changing of ambush location are traits of non-pit builders.
Ključne besede: zoologija, volkci, morfologija, Neuroptera, zoology, antlions, morphology, Neuroptera
Objavljeno: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 1055; Prenosov: 86
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Rab3a ablation related changes in morphology of secretory vesicles in major endocrine pancreatic cells, pituitary melanotroph cells and adrenal gland chromaffin cells in mice
Saška Lipovšek Delakorda, Franc Janžekovič, Gerd Leitinger, Marjan Rupnik, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In this work we have compared the ultrastructural characteristics of major pancreatic endocrine cells, pituitary melanotrophs and adrenal chromaffin cells in the normal mouse strain (wild type, WT) and mice with a known secretory deficit, the Rab3a knockout strain (Rab3a KO). For this purpose, pancreata, pituitary glands and adrenal glands from the Rab3a KO and from the WT mice were analysed, using conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In order to assess the significance of the presence of Rab3a proteins in the relevant cells, we focused primarily on their secretory vesicle morphology and distribution. Our results showed a comparable general morphology in Rab3a KO and WT in all assessed endocrine cell types. In all studied cell types, the distribution of secretory granules along the plasma membrane (number of docked and almost-docked vesicles) was comparable between Rab3a KO and WT mice. Specific differences were found in the diameters of their secretory vesicles, diameters of their electron-dense cores and the presence of autophagic structures in the cells of Rab3A KO mice only. Occasionally, individual electron-dense round vesicles were present inside autophagosome-like structures; these were possibly secretory vesicles or their remnants. The differences found in the diameters of the secretory vesicles confirm the key role of Rab3a proteins in controlling the balance between secretory vesicle biogenesis and degradation, and suggest that the ablation of this protein probably changes the nature of the reservoir of secretory vesicles available for regulated exocytosis.
Ključne besede: chromaffin cells, melanotrophs, pancreatic endocrine cells
Objavljeno: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 770; Prenosov: 66
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Ultrastructural characteristics of Clostridium difficile colonies
Saška Lipovšek Delakorda, Gerd Leitinger, Maja Rupnik, 2012, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Ključne besede: mikrobiologija, bakterije, spore, rast bakterij
Objavljeno: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 1176; Prenosov: 48
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