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1.
Optical characteristics of directly deposited gold nanoparticle films
Jordi Sancho-Parramon, Tilen Švarc, Peter Majerič, Žiga Jelen, Rebeka Rudolf, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The manuscript presents the optical properties of directly deposited films of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) prepared by the Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (USP) technology. Four samples were produced, with AuNP deposition times on the glass substrate of 15 min, 30 min, 1 h and 4 h. The morphological characterisation of the deposited films showed that the size of the first deposited AuNPs was between 10 and 30 nm, while, with a longer duration of the deposition process, larger clusters of AuNPs grew by coalescence and aggregation. The prepared layers were characterised optically with Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) and ellipsometry. The ellipsometric measurements showed an increasingly denser and thicker effective thickness of the AuNP layers. The extinction spectra displayed a clear local surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR) signature (peak 520–540 nm), indicating the presence of isolated particles in all the samples. For all AuNP layers, the imaginary part of the parallel and perpendicular components of the anisotropic dielectric function was dominated by a central peak at around 2.2 eV, corresponding to the LSPR of isolated particles, and a high-energy shoulder due to Au interband transitions. It was shown that, as the density of particles increased, the extinction cross-section grew over the whole spectral range where measurements are taken. Thus, the response can be explained with an enhanced electromagnetic response between the AuNPs that can be connected to the increase in particle density, but also by the formation of clusters and irregular structures.
Ključne besede: optical characteristics, gold nanoparticles’ films, UV–vis, ellipsometry measurements
Objavljeno v DKUM: 28.05.2024; Ogledov: 95; Prenosov: 0

2.
Study of ▫$Ni/Y_2O_3/polylactic$▫ acid composite
Tilen Švarc, Matej Zadravec, Žiga Jelen, Peter Majerič, Blaž Kamenik, Rebeka Rudolf, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This study demonstrates the successful synthesis of Ni/Y2O3 nanocomposite particles through the application of ultrasound-assisted precipitation using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. They were collected in a water suspension with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the stabiliser. The presence of the Y2O3 core and Ni shell was confirmed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and with electron diffraction. The TEM observations revealed the formation of round particles with an average diameter of 466 nm, while the lattice parameter on the Ni particle’s surface was measured to be 0.343 nm. The Ni/Y2O3 nanocomposite particle suspensions were lyophilized, to obtain a dried material that was suitable for embedding into a polylactic acid (PLA) matrix. The resulting PLA/Ni/Y2O3 composite material was extruded, and the injection was moulded successfully. Flexural testing of PLA/Ni/Y2O3 showed a slight average decrease (8.55%) in flexural strength and a small decrease from 3.7 to 3.3% strain at the break, when compared to the base PLA. These findings demonstrate the potential for utilising Ni/Y2O3 nanocomposite particles in injection moulding applications and warrant further exploration of their properties and new applications in various fields.
Ključne besede: ultrasound spray pyrolysis, Ni/Y2O3, lyophilization, PLA, extrusion, injection moulding
Objavljeno v DKUM: 05.04.2024; Ogledov: 161; Prenosov: 8
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,29 MB)
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Material analysis of the remains of a wooden chest from the 4th century and a proposal for its reconstruction
Rebeka Rudolf, Janez Slapnik, Rajko Bobovnik, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Ključne besede: chest, brass tile, analysis, characterisation, reconstruction
Objavljeno v DKUM: 04.04.2024; Ogledov: 118; Prenosov: 14
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,79 MB)
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5.
Razvoj au nanodelcev z metodo ultrazvočne razpršilne pirolize za detekcijo protiteles proti SARS-CoV-2 : doktorska disertacija
Žiga Jelen, 2023, doktorska disertacija

Opis: V doktorskem delu so predstavljene študije, eksperimentalno delo, tehnike karakterizacije, rezultati in analize, s pomočjo katerih smo potrdili hipotezo, da je možno Au nanodelce (AuND) pripravljene z metodo ultrazvočne razpršilne pirolize (USP), konjugirati s ciljnimi antigeni SARS-CoV-2 in rekombinantnim IgG, da bodo delovali v imunoserološkem hitrem testu na lateralni tok (LFIA), za potrditev potencialne prisotnosti protiteles proti virusu SARS-CoV-2. S ciljno izbranimi parametri (0,5 g/l Au, 5 l/min N2, 2,5 l/min H2) smo z USP sintetizirali AuND iz prekurzorja na osnovi zlatovega (III) klorida. AuND smo zbirali v steklenicah z demineralizirano vodo. Določili smo optimalne stabilizatorje in njihove koncentracije: 2,5 g/L PVP 40K ((C6H9NO)n) ter naknadno dodani 1 g/L trinatrijevega citrata (Na3C6H5O7) in saharoze (C12H22O11), da bi preprečili AuND aglomeracijo. Presevna elektronska mikroskopija AuND je pokazala, da so okrogli, s povprečno velikostjo okoli 50 nm in ozko velikostno porazdelitvijo, brez defektov in nizkim ZETA potencialom, 2,4 mV, pri pH 7,5. Za odstranitev vode iz suspenzije z AuND in stabilizatorji je bila uporabljena liofiliazcija, ki je bila izvedena pri naslednjih pogojih: zamrzovanje pri –40 °C, 4 h, atmosferski tlak; primarno sušenje pri +20 °C, 12 h, 1–4 Pa; sekundarno sušenje pri +30 °C, 33 h, 1–4 Pa. Nastali posušeni AuND so ohranili vse lastnosti, ki so potrebne za funkcijo oznak v hitrih LFIA testih: visoka površinska energija, površinska plazmonska resonanca in proste karboksilne skupine za konjugacijo. V nadaljevanju izvajanja eksperimentov smo, da bi potrdili doktorske hipoteze, izvedli raziskavo in optimizacijo konjugacije AuND z antigenom SARS-CoV-2, ki je bodičasti protein S1 (ak 1-681), in s protitelesi na zajčji IgG (RMG03). Za določitev poteka konjugacije AuND smo uporabili posredne (gelske elektroforeze, UV-Vis, preizkus delovanja) in direktne (XPS, SIMS) metode. Rezultati so pokazali, da se med našim postopkom konjugacije, v fazah čiščenja odstranimo večinski delež PVP in saharoze, ter s tem sprostimo proste karboksilne funkcionalne skupine citratnih ionov, ki so vezani na povšini AuND. Na teh prostih mestih lahko poteče konjugacija prek prostih -NH2 skupin na proteinih. Njihovo funkcionalnost smo ovrednotili z eksperimentalnimi testiranji lastno razvitega LFIA testa. Na osnovi tega smo postavili model in mehanizem konjugacije AuND, ki predpostavlja, da poteka konjugacija z antigeni oziroma protitelesi prek tvorbe peptidnih vezi med N-koncem proteina in prostimi karboksilnimi skupinami citratnega iona, ki je vezan na površino AuND prek svojih karboksilnih skupin. Za dodatno potrditev funkcionalizacije AuND z izbranimi biomolekulami smo v sklepnem delu doktorskega dela izvedli klinično študijo na pacientih UKC MB, ki je bila odobrena s sklepom KME RS št. 0120-148/2021/3. Rezultati študije so pokazali, da testi dosegajo visoko občutljivost (83 %) tako na vzorcih nosnega sluza kot na vzorcih seruma, slabšo specifičnost (66 % sluz, 74 % serum), visoko negativno napovedno vrednost (94 %) in slabšo pozitivno napovedno vrednost (38 % sluz, 45 % serum). S študijo smo potrdili delovanje AuND v funkciji oznak, saj so se testne in kontrolne linije v lastno razvitem LFIA hitrem testu obarvale.
Ključne besede: Nanodelci zlata, SARS-CoV-2 virus, stabilizacija, konjugacija, LFIA testi, karakterizacija
Objavljeno v DKUM: 28.03.2024; Ogledov: 270; Prenosov: 31
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,61 MB)

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Recovery study of gold nanoparticle markers from lateral flow immunoassays
Tilen Švarc, Peter Majerič, Darja Feizpour, Žiga Jelen, Matej Zadravec, Timi Gomboc, Rebeka Rudolf, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are a simple diagnostic device used to detect targeted analytes. Wasted and unused rapid antigen lateral flow immunoassays represent mass waste that needs to be broken down and recycled into new material components. The aim of this study was to recover gold nanoparticles that are used as markers in lateral flow immunoassays. For this purpose, a dissolution process with aqua regia was utilised, where gold nanoparticles were released from the lateral flow immunoassay conjugate pads. The obtained solution was then concentrated further with gold chloride salt (HAuCl4) so that it could be used for the synthesis of new gold nanoparticles in the process of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP). Various characterisation methods including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma were used during this study. The results of this study showed that the recovery of gold nanoparticles from lateral flow immunoassays is possible, and the newly synthesised gold nanoparticles represent the possibility for incorporation into new products.
Ključne besede: gold nanoparticles, recovery, LFIA, ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, characterisation
Objavljeno v DKUM: 09.02.2024; Ogledov: 298; Prenosov: 15
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9.
Polyvinylpyrrolidone-stabilised gold nanoparticle coatings inhibit blood protein adsorption
Hanuma Reddy Tiyyagura, Matej Bračič, Rebeka Rudolf, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In this work, the ability of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilised gold nanoparticle (AuNP) coatings to inhibit blood protein adsorption was evaluated by studying timeresolved solid–liquid interactions of the coatings with the model blood protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). Inhibiting unspecific blood protein adsorption is of crucial importance for blood-contacting implant devices, e.g. vascular grafts, stents, artificial joints, and others, as a preventive strategy for bacterial biofilm formation. A quartz crystal microbalance was used in this work to coat the AuNPs on piezoelectric sensors and to follow time-resolved solid–liquid interactions with the proteins. The AuNP coatings were evaluated for their wettability by contact angle measurements, their surface morphology by lightand atomic force microscopy, and their chemical composition by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results revealed a homogeneous distribution of AuNPs on the sensor surface with a dry mass coverage of 3.37 ± 1.46 µg/cm2 and a contact angle of 25.2 ± 1.1°. Solid–liquid interaction studies by quartz crystal microbalance showed a high repellence of BSA from the PVP-stabilised AuNP coatings and the importance of the PVP in the mechanism of repellence. Furthermore, the conformation of the polymer on the coatings as well as its viscoelastic properties were revealed. Finally, the activated partial thrombin time test and fibrinogen adsorption studies revealed that the AuNPs do not accelerate blood coagulation and can partially inhibit the adhesion of fibrinogen, which is a crucial factor in the common blood coagulation cascade. Such AuNPs have the potential to be used in blood-contact medical applications.
Ključne besede: gold nanoparticles, ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, haemocompatibility, protein adsorption, quartz crystal microbalance
Objavljeno v DKUM: 30.01.2024; Ogledov: 319; Prenosov: 15
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,61 MB)
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10.
Reconstruction of a fluid bed device for separating granular material from the grinding process of rapid antigen tests
Miha Jordan, Tilen Švarc, Peter Majerič, Rebeka Rudolf, Matej Zadravec, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The article includes the study and reconstruction of a fluid bed device with the purpose of separating the granular material from the grinding process of rapid antigen tests. The following techniques were performed, with the purpose of characterisation of the ground particles: sieve analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The paper includes experimental testing of a simplified separation process with zeolite spheres and paper strips, supported by a numerical model. The flow conditions’ impact on the behaviour and interactions of particles of the considered problem were simulated using coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the discrete element method (DEM) approach. The separation process of zeolite spheres and paper strips was found to be efficient. The simulation results showed the appropriate behaviour of the particles during the process. We explained the results’ deviations, and we also presented the shortcomings and possible improvements. Further research is required to define the adequacy of the process, while using actual ground material of rapid antigen tests.
Ključne besede: rapid antigen tests, nanomaterials, fluidised bed, computational fluid dynamics, discrete element method, characterisation
Objavljeno v DKUM: 05.01.2024; Ogledov: 330; Prenosov: 27
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,21 MB)
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