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Sarcopenia, obesity, and their association with selected behavioral factors in active older adults
Kaja Teraž, Miloš Kalc, Manca Peskar, Saša Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Primož Pori, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Introduction: The number of obese people in the world is increasing, as is the number of sarcopenic people among the older adults. Although both states are concerning, they can be positively influenced by selected behavioral factors such as adequate nutrition and physical activity. We were interested in the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in active older people and the influence of behavioral factors on this phenomenon. Methods: The study included 38 older adults (21 women) with a mean age of 75.3 ± 5.0 years. Sarcopenic parameters were determined with different tests: Handgrip Test, Chair Stand Test, Gait Speed, Timed Up and Go Test, and Short Physical Performance Battery. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Physical activity level was measured using accelerometers, and nutritional status was assessed using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment and MEDLIFE Index questionnaire. Results: Of all included active participants (the average number of steps per day was 8,916 ± 3,543), 47.4% of them were obese. Of all included women, 52.4% were obese. Sarcopenic obesity was found in three (7.9%) participants. Nutritional status correlated with strength of lower extremities and physical performance tests (gait speed, Timed Up and Go Test and Short Physical performance battery). Higher number of steps per day positively correlates with physical performance. Discussion: Interestingly, we did not find any correlation between the main obesity parameter such as percent body fat or body mass index (and thus sarcopenic obesity) and any of the selected behavioral factors (physical activity, sedentary behavior, or dietary habits). In conclusion, reaching the recommended levels of physical activity in older adults may not be sufficient to prevent the occurrence of obesity and sarcopenic obesity.
Ključne besede: aging, physical activity, nutrition, healthy lifestyle, body composition, sarcopenia
Objavljeno v DKUM: 27.05.2024; Ogledov: 5; Prenosov: 0
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Physical activity drops during summer holidays for 6- to 9-year-old children
Tadeja Volmut, Rado Pišot, Jurij Planinšec, Boštjan Šimunič, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Regular physical activity (PA) reduces the health risk of childhood obesity and associated chronic diseases as well as mental health problems. Since PA declines as children age as well with future generations it is of highest importance to intervene in school and out-of-school settings. Out-of-school periods affect children's PA as it is mainly left to the interest and motivation of their parents. We compared accelerometer-based PA patterns in 93 6- to 9-year old children assessed four times: before (May/June), during (August), and after (September) summer holidays and at a 1-year follow up (May/June). Before summer holidays children were assessed also for anthropometry and motor tests. During summer holidays overall PA decreased by 18% (p < 0.001), physical inactivity increased by 5.5% (p < 0.001), moderate PA decreased by 53% (p < 0.001) and moderate to vigorous PA decreased by 45% (p < 0.001) when compared to before summer holidays. Furthermore, overall PA remained diminished also after summer holidays by 8.8% (p = 0.001) but recovered to baseline values at 1-year follow up. About 30% of overall PA and moderate to vigorous PA decrease during summer holidays could be explained by children's fitness level as a greater decrease was found in children with better results in standing long jump and 300-meter running time. Our finding detects an alarming summer holiday decrease in children PA that should not be neglected in future studies and intervention designs.
Ključne besede: MVPA, otroci, poletne počitnice, gibalna neaktivnost, sedentarnost, pospeškometer, children, vacations, physical inactivity, sedentary behavior, accelerometer
Objavljeno v DKUM: 15.05.2024; Ogledov: 87; Prenosov: 3
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Sarcopenia parameters in active older adults : an eight-year longitudinal study
Kaja Teraž, Uroš Marušič, Miloš Kalc, Boštjan Šimunič, Primož Pori, Bruno Grassi, Stefano Lazzer, Marco Vicenzo Narici, Mojca Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Pietro Enrico Di Prampero, Carlo Reggiani, Angelina Passaro, Gianni Biolo, Mladen Gasparini, Rado Pišot, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background Sarcopenia is a common skeletal muscle syndrome that is common in older adults but can be mitigated by adequate and regular physical activity. The development and severity of sarcopenia is favored by several factors, the most influential of which are a sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity. The aim of this observational longitudinal cohort study was to evaluate changes in sarcopenia parameters, based on the EWGSOP2 definition in a population of active older adults after eight years. It was hypothesized that selected active older adults would perform better on sarcopenia tests than the average population. Methods The 52 active older adults (22 men and 30 women, mean age: 68.4±5.6 years at the time of their first evaluation) participated in the study at two time points eight-years apart. Three sarcopenia parameters were assessed at both time points: Muscle strength (handgrip test), skeletal muscle mass index, and physical performance (gait speed), these parameters were used to diagnose sarcop0enia according to the EWGSOP2 definition. Additional motor tests were also performed at follow-up measurements to assess participants’ overall fitness. Participants self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior using General Physical Activity Questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up measurements. Results In the first measurements we did not detect signs of sarcopenia in any individual, but after 8 years, we detected signs of sarcopenia in 7 participants. After eight years, we detected decline in ; muscle strength (-10.2%; p<.001), muscle mass index (-5.4%; p<.001), and physical performance measured with gait speed (-28.6%; p<.001). Similarly, self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior declined, too (-25.0%; p=.030 and −48.5%; p<.001, respectively). Conclusions Despite expected lower scores on tests of sarcopenia parameters due to age-related decline, participants performed better on motor tests than reported in similar studies. Nevertheless, the prevalence of sarcopenia was consistent with most of the published literature. Trial registration The clinical trial protocol was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04899531
Ključne besede: elderly, physical activities, sedentary behavior, skeletal muscle disorder, sarcopenia
Objavljeno v DKUM: 25.03.2024; Ogledov: 127; Prenosov: 3
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Inter-person differences in isometric coactivations of triceps surae and tibialis anterior decrease in young, but not in older adults after 14 days of bed rest
Matjaž Divjak, Gašper Sedej, Nina Murks, Mitja Gerževič, Uroš Marušič, Rado Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Aleš Holobar, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We examined activation patterns of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), soleus (SO), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles in eight older (58.4 ± 3.3 years) and seven young (23.1 ± 2.9 years) participants, before and after 14 days of horizontal bed rest. Visual feedback on the exerted muscle torque was provided to the participants. The discharge patterns of individual motor units (MUs) were studied in three repetitions of isometric plantar flexion at 30 and 60% of Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC), before, and 1 day after the 14-day bed rest, respectively. In the GL and GM muscles, the older participants demonstrated higher MU discharge rates than the young, regardless of the contraction level, both before and after the bed rest. In the TA and SO muscles, the differences between the older and young participants were less consistent. Detailed analysis revealed person-specific changes in the MU discharge rates after the bed rest. To quantify the coactivation patterns we calculated the correlation coefficients between the cumulative spike trains of identified MUs from each muscle, and measured the root mean square difference of the correlation coefficients between the trials of the same session (intra-session variability) and between different sessions (inter-session variability) in each participant (intra-person comparison) and across participants (inter-person comparison). In the intra-person comparison, the inter-session variability was higher than the intra-session variability, either before or after the bed rest. At 60% MVC torque, the young demonstrated higher inter-person variability of coactivation than the older participants, but this variability decreased significantly after the bed rest. In older participants, inter-person variability was consistently lower at 60% than at 30% MVC torque. In young participants, inter-person variability became lower at 60% than at 30% MVC torque only after the bed rest. Precaution is required when analyzing the MU discharge and coactivation patterns, as individual persons demonstrate individual adaptations to aging or bed rest.
Ključne besede: mišičnoskeletni sistem, mišice, bed rest, staranje, elektromiografija, high density electromyography, muscle disuse, motor units, discharge rate, aging
Objavljeno v DKUM: 07.07.2023; Ogledov: 442; Prenosov: 44
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Primerjava biomehanskih karakteristik skeletnih mišic med vrhunskimi in rekreativnimi alpskimi smučarji
Jure Urbanc, 2019, diplomsko delo

Opis: Alpsko smučanje že dolgo velja za slovenski nacionalni šport. Smučajo mladi in manj mladi, profesionalci in rekreativci. Seveda so se smučarska oprema, tehnika in način smučanja z leti spreminjali in spreminjali so se tudi trend in vrste poškodb. Prav zaradi tega smo se odločili, da bomo v diplomski nalogi ugotavljali razlike v biomehanskih karakteristikah skeletnih mišic med vrhunskimi in rekreativnimi alpskimi smučarji. Osredotočili smo se na discipline alpskega smučanja, zato smo podrobneje preučili njihovo tekmovalno tehniko ter razčlenili različne faze smučarskega zavoja. Za lažje razumevanje smo predstavili tehnične značilnosti in pomen smuči in ostale opreme ter discipline, v katerih tekmujejo alpski smučarji. Vsak šport temelji na načinu športne vadbe in tudi preventive, zato smo ob opisu gibalnih in funkcionalnih sposobnosti poudarili tudi pomen športne diagnostike. V zaključku teoretičnega dela smo predstavili sodobno diagnostično metodo za spremljanje značilnosti skeletnih mišic - tenziomiografijo (TMG) in natančno interpretirali njeno uporabo ter izmerjene rezultate – parametre. Vse to smo uporabili v raziskovalnem delu naloge. Raziskovalni del je jedro te diplomske naloge. Podatke, ki smo jih pridobili z metodo TMG, smo obdelali s programom SPSS. Raziskava nam je pokazala ključne razlike med vzorcema skeletnih mišic pri vrhunskih in rekreativnih alpskih smučarjih in s tem podkrepila ugotovitve o vzrokih za nastanek poškodb in o načinih za njihovo preprečitev.
Ključne besede: alpsko smučanje, tehnika smučanja, smučarska oprema, gibalne in funkcionalne sposobnosti, poškodbe, tenziomiografija
Objavljeno v DKUM: 18.09.2019; Ogledov: 1198; Prenosov: 152
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Vpliv osnovnih gibalnih in funkcionalnih sposobnosti na hitrost vodenja žoge pri 10-17 let starih nogometaših
Matija Maršič, Branko Zupan, Rado Pišot, Mitja Gerževič, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Cilj študije je bil ugotoviti povezanost izbranih gibalnih in funkcionalnih sposobnosti s hitrostjo vodenja žoge s spremembo smeri pri 183 mladih nogometaših med 10. in 17. letom starosti (starost 13,0 ± 1,8 leta; telesna višina 161,8 ± 13,3 cm; telesna masa 53,3 ± 14,7 kg). Na osnovi pridobljenih podatkov in rezultatov smo ugotovili, da bi se bilo treba po 13. letu poleg drugim, za nogometno igro pomembnim sposobnostim, bolj posvetiti razvoju elastične odrivne moči, po 16. letu pa vse bolj oz. še bolj poudarjati visoko hitrost in kakovost izvedbe specifičnih nogometnih vsebin tipa hitrosti in agilnosti. Za uspešno vodenje s spremembo smeri je pri 10–11 letih pomembna predvsem agilnost, pri 12–13 letih tudi relativna odrivna elastična moč in aerobno-anaerobna vzdržljivost, pri 14–15 letih predvsem aerobno-anaerobna vzdržljivost, pri 16–17 letih pa poleg agilnosti še hitrost pospeševanja in največja hitrost teka.
Ključne besede: nogomet, gibalne sposobnosti, motorične sposobnosti, gibalni razvoj, otroci
Objavljeno v DKUM: 12.10.2017; Ogledov: 1209; Prenosov: 135
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Motor structure and basic movement competences in early child development
Rado Pišot, Jurij Planinšec, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Motor development consists of dynamic and continuous development in motor behaviour and is reflected in motor competences (on the locomotive, manipulative and postural level) and motor abilities (coordination, strength, speed, balance, flexibility, precision and endurance). This is a complex process in which a child acquires motor abilities and knowledge in interaction with inherited and environmental factors. A sample of 603 boys and girls, of which 263 were aged five (age deviation +/– 3 days; 18,5 ± 3,1kg body weight; 109,4 ± 4,3 cm body height) and 340 were aged six and a half (age deviation +/– 3 days; 23, 7 ± 4, 3 kg body weight; 121 ± 4,8 cm body height), were involved in this study after written consent was obtained from their parents. The children’s motor structure was established through the application of 28 tests that had been verified on the Slovene population and established as adequate for the study of motor abilities in the sample children. The factor analysis was applied to uncover the latent structure of motor space, and PB (Štalec & Momirović) criteria were used to establish the number of significant basic components. The analysis of the motor space structure revealed certain particularities for each age period. In the sample of 5 year old children, the use of PB criterion revealed four latent motor dimensions, in 6.5 year old children, the latent motor space structure was described with four (boys) and five (girls) factors. Despite the existence of gender differences in motor space structure and certain particularities in each age period mostly related to the factors which influence movement coordination, several very similar dimensions were discovered in both sexes.
Ključne besede: early childhood, motor development, motor skills and knowledge, motor structure, factor analysis
Objavljeno v DKUM: 21.07.2017; Ogledov: 20195; Prenosov: 205
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Lower correlation between biceps femoris contraction time and maximal running speed in children than in adults : a longitudinal study in 9- to 14-year old children
Jernej Završnik, Rado Pišot, Tadeja Volmut, Katja Koren, Helena Blažun Vošner, Peter Kokol, Janez Vošner, Boštjan Šimunič, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Biceps femoris is a major propulsor muscle in sprinting and its contraction time negatively correlates to the running speeds of adults. Our aim was to compare age and gender-related correlations between vastus lateralis and biceps femoris contraction times and running speeds during a longitudinal study of 9- to 14-year old children. On a yearly basis we conducted vastus lateralis and biceps femoris tensiomyographic measurements of muscle contraction time and maximal running speeds measured during 7 meter sprints with flying starts using photocells in 107 children (53 boys). Vastus lateralis contraction time was not correlated with the running speed. However, biceps femoris contraction time was negatively correlated with the running speed only in boys after the age of 12.9 years (Pearson r ranges from -0.391 to -0.426; p < 0.002). It was concluded that biceps femoris contraction time is far less correlated with running speed than in adult athletes (Pearson r = -0.60); however, the correlation is gender and age-specific. It seems that the knee flexor and hip extensor, biceps femoris, is not as yet the major determinant of running speed in 9- to 14-year old children at that age.
Ključne besede: skeletal muscles, biceps femoris, vastus lateralis, tensiomyography, pediatrics
Objavljeno v DKUM: 21.07.2017; Ogledov: 2247; Prenosov: 135
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Biomechanical characteristics of skeletal muscles and associations between running speed and contraction time in 8- to 13-year-old children
Jernej Završnik, Rado Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Peter Kokol, Helena Blažun Vošner, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Objective: To investigate associations between running speeds and contraction times in 8- to 13-year-old children. Method: This longitudinal study analyzed tensiomyographic measurements of vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles’ contraction times and maximum running speeds in 107 children (53 boys, 54 girls). Data were evaluated using multiple correspondence analysis. Results: A gender difference existed between the vastus lateralis contraction times and running speeds. The running speed was less dependent on vastus lateralis contraction times in boys than in girls. Analysis of biceps femoris contraction times and running speeds revealed that running speeds of boys were much more structurally associated with contraction times than those of girls, for whom the association seemed chaotic. Conclusion: Joint category plots showed that contraction times of biceps femoris were associated much more closely with running speed than those of the vastus lateralis muscle. These results provide insight into a new dimension of children’s development.
Ključne besede: children, tensiomyography, running speed, contraction time, skelet muscle, motor development
Objavljeno v DKUM: 13.07.2017; Ogledov: 1384; Prenosov: 385
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Povezanost statusa telesne teže in gibalne učinkovitosti otrok v Sloveniji
Črtomir Matejek, Jurij Planinšec, Samo Fošnarič, Rado Pišot, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Izhodišče: Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti, ali obstajajo razlike v gibalni učinkovitosti med otroki z normalno telesno težo, s prekomerno telesno težo in z debelostjo. Metode: Raziskava je bila opravljena na vzorcu 572 otrok iz severovzhodne Slovenije (povprečna starost 7,3 leta, SO = 1,29). Na osnovi indeksa telesne mase (ITM) so bili otroci razdeljeni v skupine z normalno telesno težo, s prekomerno telesno težo in z debelostjo. Za ugotavljanje gibalne učinkovitosti je bilo uporabljenih šest testov različnih gibalnih sposobnosti (moč, vzdržljivost, hitrost, ravnotežje in koordinacija gibanja). Razlike v gibalni učinkovitosti med otroki z normalno telesno težo, s prekomerno telesno težo in z debelostjo so bile izračunane z analizo variance, statistično značilnost razlik pa smo ugotavljali na ravni tveganja p < 0,05 in so bile natančneje opredeljene s pomočjo preizkusa Scheffe post-hoc. Rezultati: Rezultati kažejo, da ima primerno telesno težo 73,8 % otrok, prekomerno telesno težo 16,6 % otrok in debelost 9,6 % otrok. Med otroki z normalno telesno težo, s prekomerno telesno težo in z debelostjo obstajajo statistično značilne razlike (p < 0,05) v vseh obravnavanih gibalnih sposobnostih. Najbolj gibalno zmogljivi so otroci z normalno telesno težo, nekoliko nižja je gibalna učinkovitost otrok s prekomerno telesno težo, medtem ko je gibalna učinkovitost najnižja pri skupini otrok z debelostjo. Zaključek: Rezultati dokazujejo, da obstaja tesna povezanost med gibalno učinkovitostjo in statusom telesne teže otrok.
Ključne besede: predpubertetni otroci, gibalni razvoj, gibalne sposobnosti, gibalna dejavnost, gibalne kompetence, antropometrija
Objavljeno v DKUM: 21.12.2015; Ogledov: 1701; Prenosov: 206
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