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1.
Standard of control under Article 8 ARSIWA
Leon Brulc, 2019, magistrsko delo

Opis: State responsibility is considered an essential part of international law, since the whole body of international law would in essence be deemed ineffective if the States were not held liable for their conduct. States are the principal bearers of international obligations because of their legal personality. As a consequence, the fact that States have certain obligations, means that responsibility is heavily interlinked with the notion of sovereignty and vice versa. Similarly to individuals, sovereignty of States is limited with the rights of other States. However, this does not mean that State responsibility is an abandonment of State’s sovereignty, but rather its attribute. A State cannot act on its own. It can only conduct its operations through its organs and through private actors. While the conduct of an organ of a State might automatically be attributed to that State, the attributability of a private actor’s conduct appears to be more problematic. One of the grounds of attribution of a private actor’s conduct is found in Article 8 of the International Law Commission’s Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ARSIWA). Under Article 8 of the ARSIWA, private actor’s conduct is attributable to a State if that State instructs a private actor or if it controls or directs it. When it comes to the attribution on the grounds of control, the case law and theory, as to the degree of control required to trigger State responsibility, are at odds. While part of the theory defends the test adopted by the International Court of Justice (the effective control test), other academics defend the test proposed by International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (the overall control test). This clash is the focal point of the thesis. While both of these tests were developed in a (para)military context, the question arises whether they can be applied to private corporations, and if the answer is yes, to what extent. In addition to proposing an appropriate test for corporations, this thesis also tries to find the appropriate test for (para)military group and determine whether there should be only one test for attribution or if there ought to be multiple.
Ključne besede: State responsibility, Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, Article 8, Attributability, Control, Tadić case, Military activities in Nicaragua case, Bosnian genocide case, effective control test, overall control test
Objavljeno: 27.06.2019; Ogledov: 677; Prenosov: 171
.pdf Celotno besedilo (732,55 KB)

2.
Pravni vidiki geoblokiranja v Evropski uniji
Leon Brulc, 2017, diplomsko delo

Opis: Evropska unija namenja velik del svojih sredstev vzpostavitvi enotnega trga, ki bi imela za posledico ekonomsko rast vseh držav članic. Del končnega cilja popolnega enotnega trga predstavlja enotni digitalni trg, ki pa si ga lahko zamislimo le ob visoki digitalni integraciji potrošnikov. Tema tega diplomskega dela je geoblokiranje, praksa trgovcev, ki potrošnike diskriminira na podlagi državljanstva ali prebivališča. Geoblokiranje predstavlja veliko oviro za vzpostavitev enotnega digitalnega trga in s tem tudi oviro za celoten enotni trg V prvem delu diplomskega dela predstavim enotni digitalni trg, njegove cilje in njihovo (ne)uspešnost. Nadalje predstavim različne oblike geoblokiranja (tiste, ki vsebujejo vprašanja avtorskega prava in druge oblike geoblokiranja) ter njihove pozitivne in negativne posledice. Sledita predstavitev in kritika pravne regulacije preprečevanja geoblokiranja v EU do sedaj (zlasti preko 20. člena Direktive o storitvah), nato pa predstavim predloge Uredb, ki naj bi geoblokiranju naredile konec. Za popolno odpravo geoblokiranja, bi bilo potrebno predloge Uredb nadgraditi tako da bi vprašanja avtorskega prava in druge oblike geoblokiranja urejali enotno. Vendar pa je ob tem potrebno poudariti, da bi odprava geoblokiranja poleg pozitivnih pridobitev (kot denimo nova delovna mesta, nižje cene, povečana prodaja itd.), prinesla tudi negativne posledice (kot denimo manjše gibanje prebivalcev, negativne posledice za okolje, socialna izolacija itd.).
Ključne besede: geoblokiranje, Evropska unija, Direktiva o storitvah, pravice potrošnikov, omejitev dostopa, spletno potovanje, diskriminacija, prebivališče, državljanstvo, enotni digitalni trg.
Objavljeno: 23.08.2017; Ogledov: 1273; Prenosov: 239
.pdf Celotno besedilo (667,55 KB)

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