The language of appraisal in selected TED talks : magistrsko deloSarah Vidmar
, 2021, magistrsko delo
Opis: This master’s thesis examines five selected TED Talks by using Martin and White’s Appraisal Theory (2005). TED Talks are a specific form of speech which has spread worldwide with live TED events and even videos online since the first organised TED event in 1984. The theoretical background of this master’s thesis covers mainly Martin and White’s Appraisal Theory (2005), although it does include the views of other researchers, including Mary Macken-Horarik and Anne Isaac, as well as Geoff Thompson, on appraisal analysis as well. Furthermore, it encompasses a short overview of discourse analysis and systemic functional linguistics, as this is the theoretical framework from which Appraisal Theory has evolved. The empirical part includes the analysis of appraisal in the five selected TED Talks, chosen based on the assigned tag on the official TED web page. The selected TED Talks are: “Why I'm Done Trying to Be ‘Man Enough’” by Justin Baldoni; “Dare to Refuse the Origin Myths That Claim Who You Are” by Chetan Bhatt; “How Changing Your Story Can Change Your Life” by Lori Gottlieb; “My Year of Saying Yes to Everything” by Shonda Rhimes; and “Your Brain Hallucinates Your Conscious Reality” by Anil Seth.
The appraisal model explores the speaker/writer’s evaluation of certain occurrences, concepts and people in a form of his/her emotional responses, judgement and appreciation. Furthermore, it studies the speaker/writer’s positioning to alternative viewpoints and alignment with the text’s point of view. The aim of this thesis is to observe the use of appraisals in a contemporary form of a public speech, i.e. TED Talks. The further objective of this thesis is also to detect typical patterns in appraisal use within the genre of public speaking, specifically, within TED Talks which are known to have a set form and common features that distinguish them from other forms of speeches or academic lectures. Thus, this thesis aims to research ways in which the speakers of the selected TED Talks express themselves with the use of appraisals. Since all but one of the chosen five TED Talks are tagged as ‘Personal Growth’ on the official TED web page, the purpose of the research is also to see whether there are any differences in appraisal use, more specifically in the use of affect between the TED Talks tagged as ‘Personal Growth’ and the one which is not tagged as such and may therefore be more objective in its nature. Besides exploring attitudinal resources, the thesis also observes the occurrence of graduation resources and their prevalence, as well as the ways the speakers engage with their audience and their prevalence.
The appraisal analysis of the selected TED Talks has proved the use of all attitudinal resources in the delivery of these talks. Furthermore, the analysis has shown that the chosen topics of TED Talks have an influence on the speakers’ use of attitudes. Affect has a prominent role in most talks, however, the more the speaker tries to stay unbiased and objective, the more she or he avoids affect in relation to her-/himself and turns to appreciation. In addition, the speakers of the selected TED Talks tend to use graduation heavily in their narrative, force being the predominant graduation resource in all selected talks. Even though the analysis of engagement resources in the selected TED Talks showed the presence of dialogically expansive expressions to be more common in four out of five examined TED Talks, dialogically contractive expressions also occur frequently in the speakers’ narratives, revealing the speakers’ attempt to balance welcoming of alternative viewpoints and at the same time maintain self-assurance in their knowledge and beliefs by restricting other voices.
Ključne besede: Appraisal, TED Talks, Evaluation, Appraisal Analysis, Discourse Analysis
Objavljeno v DKUM: 20.12.2021; Ogledov: 538; Prenosov: 77
Celotno besedilo (2,23 MB)
The use of Past Simple and Present Perfect Tense and common errors of students in 9th gradeKaja Podgoršek
, 2021, magistrsko delo
Opis: In master's thesis entitled The Use of Past Simple and Present Perfect Tense and Common Errors of Students in 9th Grade theoretical part thoroughly presents English as a global language, language acquisition and language learning, teaching English as a foreign language, grammar and its correlation to education, deductive and inductive approach, the two tenses – Past Simple and Present Perfect and the most common errors in learning English grammar.
The empirical part is based on a research where 100 9th graders from 6 different schools answered questions from a questionnaire regarding English tenses. With the help of questionnaire which had 9 tasks in total, we were able to examine and research to what extent do the Slovenian 9th graders know and successfully use Past Simple and Present Perfect. The questionnaire was created accordingly to the syllabus.
The learners were the most successful when dealing with the theoretical part of the questionnaire. Even though they had some problem when choosing the correct tense when dealing with practical tasks, they had a higher success rate when dealing with the tasks that were theoretical.
The learners from 9th grade achieved overall positive success rate in all tasks which means that they successfully know, recognize and properly use Past Simple and Present Perfect Tense.
Ključne besede: English tenses, Teaching English as a foreign language, Language learning, English grammar, English as a global language
Objavljeno v DKUM: 07.10.2021; Ogledov: 693; Prenosov: 30
Celotno besedilo (1,20 MB)
A monosemic account of modality in speech act theoryNiko Šetar
, 2020, magistrsko delo
Opis: Connection between modality in the English language and pragmatics is a matter of extensive debate as it often seems there is no concrete way of establishing a sensible correlation between modality that an utterance contains and its pragmatic function, which is due to numerous issues pertaining to different accounts of both modality and speech act theory.
Traditional view of modality splits modal verbs into three categories: epistemic, deontic and dynamic (also known as simple root modality). The problem with this view is that there is no way of determining whether a certain modal verb is used in epistemic, deontic, or dynamic sense as most modals can serve any of the three functions, therefore explaining modality within this framework is highly ambiguous even when relying on broader context of the utterance containing a certain modal.
Traditional view of speech acts, on the other hand, divides them into locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary speech acts. Yet it would seem that all modalities pertain only to illocutionary speech acts, as they are the ones that express speaker's intentions, which are most heavily influenced by modality. The connection between traditionalist accounts is therefore quite impossible.
A more contemporary view splits speech acts into assertive, commissive, constative, directive and imperative speech acts, while we may consider locution, illocution and perlocution to be aspects of these speech acts, rather than separate categories. In these case, different modalities may be connected to different speech acts, but the ambiguity that traditional view of modality contains persists into any attempt to draw the connection between modality and speech act.
Therefore, an alternative account of modality is required. Two well-known such accounts are polysemic and monosemic views of modality. Polysemic views claim that every lexeme (in our case, a modal verb) may possess several semantic meanings, while monosemic views maintain that every lexeme can be defined in the sense of a single meaning. Reviewing polysemic accounts shows that their reliance on multiple meanings and definitions for every lexeme leads to similar ambiguities as the traditional view of modality, and can therefore not be used in our efforts.
Monosemic views, however, differ greatly from one another. While some accounts have been shown to be inadequate, Groefsema’s 1995 account serves the required purpose. The author defines each modal verb in the sense of the proposition expressed by the modal and an additional minimal set of propositions that supports the use of that particular modal.
Kissine (2013) similarly defines speech acts, thus a correlation between modal verbs and speech acts may be established. Finally, we attempt to show that each modal verb with a particular minimal set of supporting propositions can only feature in one type of speech act, thus also defining the speech act within which it is contained.
Ključne besede: Pragmatics, modality, speech acts, epistemic, deontic, dynamic, assertives, commissives, constatives, directives, imperatives, polysemy, monosemy
Objavljeno v DKUM: 16.09.2020; Ogledov: 656; Prenosov: 73
Celotno besedilo (355,48 KB)
Effects of social interactions on learning and developing foreign language and phonetic learning in infancyTina Dornik
, 2019, magistrsko delo
Opis: The main aim of the master's thesis is to gather as much information as possible on early second language acquisition, types of bilingualism and language changes that occur in early second language acquisition and bilingualism. The main objective was visiting a 21-month-old child, regularly for one hour per week, for a period of one year, with whom the author communicated exclusively in English. The purpose of this was to determine the possibilities of developing the earliest type of bilingualism possible in a child living in an all Slovenian family. The fundamental research question was whether a constant but relatively short (1x per week) form of social interaction could result in development of this form of bilingualism. The author collects material through fieldwork with audio and video material and writing a journal with basic findings and further suggestions for work in this field.
Ključne besede: early second language acquisition, bilingualism, language, phonetics, code-switching
Objavljeno v DKUM: 29.08.2019; Ogledov: 817; Prenosov: 58
Celotno besedilo (864,95 KB)
Komunikacija in komunikacijski pristop poučevanja angleščineMateja Jarc Mickovski
, 2019, magistrsko delo
Opis: Komunikacija je kakršnokoli verbalno ali neverbalno vedenje, ki ga zazna neka druga oseba. Namen magistrske naloge je proučiti komunikacijski proces v šoli in v povezavi s komunikacijo proučiti učenje angleškega jezika ob študiju relevantne strokovne literature in raziskati, kako poteka poučevanje angleškega jezika v šoli. Cilji magistrske naloge so proučiti modele komunikacijskega procesa v šoli; oblike komunikacije; komunikacijske kompetence učitelja; zgodovino učenja tujih jezikov. V magistrski nalogi je bila izvedena raziskava z namenom raziskati, kako poteka poučevanje angleškega jezika v šoli. Za raziskavo je bila uporabljena kvantitativna metoda dela – anketa. Anketiranje je potekalo elektronsko preko odprto kodne aplikacije za spletno anketiranje 1ka.si. V raziskavi je bilo vključenih 43 učiteljic tujega jezika iz goriških osnovnih šol. Starostna struktura anketiranih se giblje od 31 do 55 let. Največ, kar 35 anketiranih, ima končano univerzitetno izobrazbo. Največ, kar 10 anketiranih, ima 21 let delovne dobe. Iz rezultatov je razvidno, da učitelji/učiteljice pri pouku, da bi si učenci snov hitreje zapomnili, pogosto uporabljajo gibanje – neverbalno komunikacijo. Zaključimo lahko, da je verbalna komunikacija enakovredna neverbalni komunikaciji. V 65,1 % dobijo učitelji od učencev pričakovane informacije. Učiteljeva vloga pri poučevanju angleškega jezika je zelo pomembna v 51,2 % in pomembna v 48,8 %. Nihče od učiteljev ni izrazil mnenja, da njegova vloga pri učenju angleškega jezika ni pomembna ali je srednje pomembna. 81,4 % anketiranih meni, da imajo učni materiali pomembno vlogo pri poučevanju angleškega jezika. Vsi anketirani trdijo, da ima uporaba gibalnih iger, pesmi, zgodb in predstavitev besedišča pri pouku prednosti pri poučevanju.
Ključne besede: Komunikacija, komunikacijski pristop, verbalna komunikacija, neverbalna komunikacija, poučevanje
Objavljeno v DKUM: 27.08.2019; Ogledov: 1085; Prenosov: 180
Celotno besedilo (561,43 KB)
Branje v angleščini in odstopanja v izgovorjavi angleščine glede na težavnost besedilaZala Horvatič
, 2019, magistrsko delo
Opis: V magistrski nalogi smo predstavili različne vidike psiholingvistike, ki se ukvarja prav s prejemanjem, procesiranjem in tvorjenjem jezika v možganih. V teoriji smo zajeli tudi osnove fonetike in fonologije in opise glasov ter procesov, pomembnih za našo raziskavo. Naslonili smo se na raziskave dr. Klementine Jurančič in dr. Rastislava Šuštaršica, ki sta vodilna raziskovalca angleške fonetike na slovenskih tleh. Postavila sta temelje izgovarjave angleščine pri Slovencih, ki so bili teoretično izhodišče magistrske naloge. Ker je naša raziskava bazirala na branju teksta, smo se v teoretičnem delu ukvarjali tudi s temo glasnega branja.
V magistrski nalogi se nismo ukvarjali z vsemi angleškimi fonemi, temveč smo se osredotočili na nekatere soglasnike in procese, pri katerih sodelujejo. Ugotovili smo veliko različnih pomembnih novosti, ki jih je mogoče raziskovati vnaprej in ki nam dajejo pomemben vpogled v govor naših študentov.
Glavni cilji naše magistrske naloge so bili smiselnosti teoretičnih problemov/vidikov fonetike in fonologije pri študiju angleškega jezika v Sloveniji ter njenega poučevanja. Tukaj se je smiselno vprašati, koliko časa je dovolj, da študentom predstavimo fonetiko in fonologijo, da jo razumejo, znajo in ponotranjijo. Glede na to, da je govorjeni jezik prvi stik pri spoznavanju novih ljudi, je v tujem okolju izgovarjava angleščine izjemnega pomena, sploh za študenta angleškega jezika, kaj šele za bodočega profesorja angleščine, ki želi svoje znanje predajati mladim umom..
Angleška fonetika in fonologija je izjemno pomemben predmet, ki ga študentje angleškega jezika spoznajo v prvem letniku. Zaradi tega s to magistrsko nalogo iščemo načine, kako lahko teoretični del predmeta fonetike infiltriramo v praktični del, da bi se študentje pri predmetu čim več naučili in uporabili svoje znanje fonetike v vsakdanjem življenju.
Zaradi kompleksnosti fonetike in fonologije je treba najprej raziskati dejansko znanje študentov angleščine Univerze v Mariboru. V magistrski nalogi smo raziskovali angleško izgovarjavo 20 študentov UM, prvega letnika 1. stopnje bolonjskega sistema, smeri Angleški jezik in književnost. Nekaj smernic, na katere smo bili med našo raziskavo posebej pozorni, smo dobili iz prejšnjih raziskav dr. Klementine Jurančič in dr. Rastislava Šuštaršica, ki sta naša vodilna raziskovalca angleške fonetike.
Študentom smo pripravili dva različna teksta, in sicer odlomek iz pravljice Piskač iz Hamelina in odlomek iz zgodovinske monografije. Prvi tekst, ki je bil zgodovinska monografija, je vseboval nekaj besed, ki jih v prostem govoru zelo redko zasledimo, zato smo ga klasificirali kot težek tekst. Drugi tekst smo označili za lahkega zaradi enostavnega in vsem znanega besedišča iz pravljice.
Med obdelavo rezultatov smo uporabili program SPSS, ki nam je z Paired Samples T-Test pokazal zanimive rezultate. Na tem mestu moremo opozoriti na majhen vzorec sodelujočih (dvajset študentov). Test je pokazal, da so odstopanja med lahkim in težkim tekstom minimalna, kar pomeni, da so študenti, ki so imeli dobre rezultate na lahkem tekstu, prenesli znanje na težek tekst. Le temu rečemo govorne navade ali po angleško “speech habits. Pri tem enakem testu, pa so se nam pokazala tri odstopanja, ki so se nagibala v eno ali drugo smer; torej v prid težkemu ali lahkemu tekstu. Zreducirana zvenečnost v začetnih soglasniških sklopih (z izjemo aspiracije) (60% mean v prid tekstu 1) je imel eno besedo (flowers) za glas /l/ in dve (izmed treh) za /r/, zreducirana zvenečnost v končnem soglasniškem sklopu (aritmetična sredina/povprečje/mean 22% v prid tekstu 2) je imel le en reprezentativni glas za process (/b/), in variante morfemov (44,5% v prid tekstu 2) so imeli neenakomerno porazdeljene besede, kjer so se lahke besede ponavljale ( beseda rats tudi 7 krat. Poleg tega ne moremo čez dejstvo, da je pri glasnem branju vključen stres in vsi ostali procesi, ko beremo v tujem jeziku.
Ključne besede: študentje, Branje, Soglasniki, Fonetika, Fonologija, Izgovarjava, Aspiracija
Objavljeno v DKUM: 17.04.2019; Ogledov: 1061; Prenosov: 94
Celotno besedilo (1,04 MB)
Applying the Vaughan Method When Teaching English as a Foreign Language in SpainLaura Podkoritnik
, 2019, magistrsko delo
Opis: In the thesis we write about English as a global language and the process of teaching it using a special in-company method. Learning a language differs from person to person, and even more from adults to children. When it comes to teaching English as a foreign language, we can use different approaches and methods, from conventional to alternative ones. There are many ways for people to learn a foreign language – it can be by themselves using different books, audio-visual material or apps, or by taking classes with an English teacher. Browsing through numerous job ads for English teacher vacancies one can easily notice there is a preference of native speaking teachers. Why are native speakers, that potentially do not even have any teaching certificates, more valued than non-native teachers with pedagogical background? Spain is one of the countries where English is not vastly spoken; a situation which in the past few years have been slightly changing for the better as more and more people sign up for English courses to learn English for different purposes (most common are work, travelling or themselves). One of the companies that offer English courses all over Spain is Vaughan Systems where teaching evolves around an autonomous method developed by an American, Richard Vaughan. In the thesis we introduce the method and Vaughan teachers’ opinion on it regarding their workload, pedagogical background and textbook assessment and comparing the results based on the teachers’ native speaker status and the time they have been working for the company.
Ključne besede: English teaching, language learning, adults, non-native speaking teachers, native speaking teachers, Vaughan, Spain
Objavljeno v DKUM: 11.02.2019; Ogledov: 1056; Prenosov: 69
Celotno besedilo (1,04 MB)
Formative Assessment in English Lessons in Primary SchoolMirjam Meško
, 2018, magistrsko delo
Opis: Discussions about formative assessment and advantages that it brings to the classroom are becoming more frequent. It is a new, authentic approach that allows pupils to acquire more permanent knowledge and integrate them into the educational process.
In the theoretical part, we described the meaning of formative assessment and what the key elements of formative assessment are, as well as advantages and possible weaknesses that it brings to the classroom.
The key elements of formative assessment are the purposes of learning, where goals and performance criteria are decided, portfolio, where we described the positives of using a portfolio, feedback, where the importance and the necessity of a good feedback is explained, and assessment and evaluation, where self-evaluation and peer evaluation are included.
In the empirical part, we described a case study that we conducted, where we interviewed eight elementary English teachers from Podravje region and asked them what they think about formative assessment, how they integrated it into their teaching, and how using formative assessment has changed their teaching.
Formative assessment has become a current topic at study groups for teachers in the last couple of years, so there are not any surprising results yet. The teachers that we interviewed use just some aspects of formative assessment because for the full use of formative assessment they most frequently mention the lack of time.
As any other novelty, formative assessment needs time to integrate in our educational system and reach a place that it deserves. Teachers think that introducing formative assessment at an early stage of education should be better and that the pupils would be prepared for this kind of teaching and learning, and the learning would only get easier with years. Teachers are also enthusiastic about the principle on which formative assessment works, and believe that this way pupils can achieve better and long lasting knowledge.
Ključne besede: formative assessment, feedback, portfolio, self-evaluation, peer evaluation
Objavljeno v DKUM: 09.01.2019; Ogledov: 1487; Prenosov: 154
Celotno besedilo (1,31 MB)
The Influence of Styrian and Upper Carniola Dialects on the Pronunciation of English of Slovene StudentsDominika Podvratnik
, 2018, magistrsko delo
Opis: The master’s thesis considers the influence of Styrian and Upper Carniola dialect on the pronunciation of English of Slovene students. Various factors influence the Slovene students’ pronunciation of English. The influence of mother tongue on the Slovene students’ pronunciation of English has been firmly established. However, it is only logical to think that dialect also has an important influence on the Slovene students’ pronunciation of English. The purpose of the research is to determine the influence of Styrian dialect and Upper Carniola dialect on the pronunciation of English of Slovene students. The master’s thesis strengthens the evidence for dialect influence, observes the extent of dialect influence in both dialect areas, determines in which area the dialect influence on the pronunciation of English is more visible and identifies the reasons for such influence. The research employs various research methods. Contrastive analysis is used to compare the sound systems of Upper Carniola and Styrian dialect with the sound system of British English. Based on the findings of the contrastive analysis words are chosen and organised in a test which is used for obtaining samples for analysis. Fieldwork is then carried out. Auditory analysis of samples includes listening to audio material and producing phonemic transcriptions, which concludes with statistical analysis of data. The results show that both Upper Carniola and Styrian dialect significantly influence the pronunciation of English of Slovene students. Dialect influence is slightly more prevalent in the Styrian dialect region, especially in the case of RP English /e/ and /ʊ/. Slovene students of English speak interlanguage and their interphonology rules mostly stem from English phonological rules.
Ključne besede: Upper Carniola dialect, Styrian dialect, contrastive analysis, error analysis, interlanguage
Objavljeno v DKUM: 23.10.2018; Ogledov: 832; Prenosov: 116
Celotno besedilo (1,06 MB)
Encouraging Speaking Skills by Teaching Adults English as a Foreign LanguageRebeka Očko
, 2018, magistrsko delo
Opis: English language has become the international language of communication. It is being used in almost every company; therefore the need for English-speaking staff is increasing. Making learners speak and actively participate in order to practice and improve their speaking skills is one of the hardest tasks for a teacher. Children learn best through play, but it is also adults that learn best when stimulated by different activities that put them in authentic situations. The purpose of this thesis is to find the importance and the effect that well-structured activities have on adult-learners’ speaking skills and to what extent they contribute to their level of proficiency of the English language. The theoretical part of this thesis contains information on what affects adult’s learning of a foreign language, and approaches of teaching them. There are methods presented on how to encourage learners to speak and actively participate. It is explained how to deal with adult-learners’ errors in the most productive way and how to teach pronunciation. As the red thread of this research, there are activities listed that actively engage and motivate learners to speak. In the empirical part there are nine activities presented that were applied when teaching two courses, the beginner’s course (ten participants) and the advanced course (ten participants), during the period of one year. The research was conducted to see how these activities affected twenty learners’ speaking skills, which of the activities were the most motivating for them and which helped develop their speaking skills, while dividing between beginner learners and advanced learners. Another point of the research was to see which activities helped learners remember new vocabulary for a longer period of time. The research results are then analyzed and the improvement of learners’ speaking skills is described, while the important findings are summarized at the end of the thesis.
Ključne besede: adult learners of a foreign language, English language, speaking skills, encouragement, activities.
Objavljeno v DKUM: 21.09.2018; Ogledov: 1023; Prenosov: 75
Celotno besedilo (1,16 MB)