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1.
Assessment of the load-bearing capacity of a primary pipeline
Nenad Gubeljak, Jelena Vojvodič-Tuma, Borivoj Šuštaršič, Jožef Predan, Maks Oblak, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: High-alloyed Cr-Ni-based two-phase stainless steel (SS) cast alloys are commonly used in nuclear power plants. The mechanical equipment in these facilities can contribute to a reduction in its resistance to stable crack growth as a result of extended operating times and high temperatures. The toughness of these materials strongly depends on their delta (▫$/delta$▫) ferrite content, which spinodally decomposes into two phases with different ratios of Cr and Ni at a relatively low (slightly above 300 °C) temperature. This temperature is similar to the operating temperature of the vital parts, for example, the coolant system. The formation of two phases with the same crystalstructure but different lattice parameters causes internal elastic stresses that result in a hardness increase and an impact-toughness decrease. The result is an increased risk of crack formation in the stress-concentration zones such as the critical regions of different welded joints (e.g. "L, T, K and X" shapes). The values of the critical stress intensity factor change according to its position along the crack contour. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the influence of the materials' changes on the crack extension and the decrease of the primary pipeline's bearing capacity by taking account of the increased temperature and time of operation for the given loading conditions. The SINTAP (European Structural Integrity Assessment Procedure) was used for this assessment.
Ključne besede: welding, welded joints, pipelines, fracture toughness testing, structure integrity assessment procedure
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 982; Prenosov: 44
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2.
The effect of a material's heterogeneity on the stress and strain distribution in the vicinity of a crack front
Dražan Kozak, Nenad Gubeljak, Jelena Vojvodič-Tuma, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In this investigation a high-strength low-alloyed (HSLA) steel of the 700-MPa strength class was used as a base material. A butt-welded joint with X grooves was produced with an overmatched weld metal that had a yield strength 23 % greater than that of the base material. Three-point bending B x 2B test specimens (thickness B = 36 mm) were extracted from the welded joints. The straight crack front (a0 = 35,571 mm) crosses different microstructures through the thickness of the specimen. Both fracture-mechanics tests and a 3D finite-element analysis were performed. The CTOD parameter of the fracture toughness was measured and calculated numerically. The loading level at which stable crack growth occurred was also determined. The comparison of the experimental and numerical values of the CTOD (bs) displacements showed good agreement. The principal stress, ▫$/delta_{y}$▫, the Mises equivalent stress, ▫$/delta_{eq}$▫. and the plastic equivalent strain, ▫$/epsilon_{pl, eq}$▫, at the moment of crack initiation were studied for six equidistant layers from the surface to the mid-thickness of the specimen. The dependence of the crack-opening stress (denoted as ax in this paper) on the local fracture-toughness value was considered as the parameter which determines the direction of the crack-front propagation. The results show that the lower strength of the base metal contributes to the crack-path deviation in the mid-thickness of the specimen. Both the crack-path deviation and the higher toughness of the base metal increase the critical fracture toughness value of the welded joint.
Ključne besede: trdnost spoja z večjo trdnostjo vara, razpoka, porazdelitev napetosti, porazdelitev deformacij, analiza končnih elementov
Objavljeno: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 537; Prenosov: 31
.pdf Celotno besedilo (575,99 KB)
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3.
Measurement of strain caused by residual stresses in a welded joint using neutron diffraction
Nenad Gubeljak, Jelena Vojvodič-Tuma, Hans-Georg Preismeyer, 1999, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The distribution and amount of residual stresses can significantly contrubute to the fatigue fracture behaviour of welded joints in structures. Interior residual stresses, which interact with the plane strain state, are more dangerous than residual stresses at the surface of the welded joint. If the surface of the welded joint is mechanically treated (e.g. shapering), then significant differences between the stress stated at the surface and within the volume occur. Hence, different non-destructive methods (e.g. gamma radiation, neutron diffraction) have been developed to determine strains caused by residual stresses in the volume of polycrystalline materials. However, the measurement of strains caused by residual stresses becomes difficult for large samples. In this paper the measurement procedure on a sample taken from the weld joint is presented and the effecet of residual stresses on fatigue crack propagation is assessed for low and high cycle loading fatigue.
Ključne besede: zaostale napetosti, zvarni spoj, neutronski lom žarkov, utrujenostno širjenje razpoke, neutron diffraction method, residual stresses, fatigue crack propagation, weld joint
Objavljeno: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 417; Prenosov: 9
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4.
Energija prihodnosti - jedrska fuzija
Jelena Vojvodič-Tuma, Matija Tuma, Nenad Gubeljak, Dražan Kozak, Gorazd Kosec, 2005, strokovni članek

Opis: Ocenjeno je naraščanje prebivalstva na Zemlji v naslednjih desetletjih, sočasno naraščanje potreb po primarni energiji in napisani so možni nosilci primarne energije. Razložen je princip jedrske fuzije, navedeni so robni pogoji, pri katerih je zlitje jeder sploh mogoče, in opisana je razlika med jedrsko fisijo in fuzijo. V obeh primerih se skupna masa po končani jedrski reakciji zmanjša, del mase se namreč spremeni v energijo. Prikazani so doslej vloženi napori znanstvenikov, skupaj z najnovejšim projektom ITER. Projekt naj bi končno realiziral težko pričakovano samodejno reakcijo zlitja jeder vodika v jedro helija in s tem rešil problem preskrbe človeštva s primarno energijo.
Ključne besede: fisija, fuzija, ITER, naraščanje prebivalstva, oskrba s primarno energijo
Objavljeno: 15.03.2017; Ogledov: 305; Prenosov: 53
.pdf Celotno besedilo (212,62 KB)
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5.
Factors influencing the yielding constraint by cracked welded components
Dražan Kozak, Jelena Vojvodič-Tuma, Nenad Gubeljak, Damir Semenski, 2005, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The effect of strength mismatch for welded joints performed with different geometries on the yielding constraint has been investigated in the context of single-edged fracture-toughness specimens subjected to bending SE(B) using the finite-element method. The crack was located in the centre of the weld. Two geometri cal parameters have been identified as being the most important: the crack-Iength ratio a/W and the sIenderness of the welded joint (W-a)/H. They were systematically varied as follows: a/W = 0.1; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4; 0.5 and W = 2H, 4H, 8H, 16H, 24H. Basic equations and plane-strain finite-element solutions for the overmatched SE(B) specimen with all configuration combinations are given. The results are in good agreement with those in literature. This paper aims to establish yield-Ioad solutions for the same weldment configurations, but with materials dissimilarity present within the weld. This situation is usually encountered during repair welding. For this purpose, a practical combination of filler materials, with the same portion of overmatched part with M = 1.19 and undermatched part with M = 0.86, has been selected. Plane-strain solutions for the heterogeneous weld with the cracklocated in the overmatched half were obtained. The influence of the yielding-constraint key parameters has al so been evaluated. Yield-Ioad results for the specimens performed with different weld widths have the greatest scattering for the a/W = 0.5. The transition from the overmatched to the undermatched solution with increasing H is evident. On the other hand, the behaviour of the specimen with a shallow crack is dictated by the overmatch region ahead of the crack tip and depends very little on the weld slenderness. An approximated 3-D area of the yield-Ioad solutions depending ona/W and (W-a)lH has been proposed. Furthermore, the stress triaxility parameter h has been calculated using 2-D and 3-D finite-element analysis, and given as a field in the spec imen to get an insight into yielding-constraint regions. It was found that the 3-D yield-Ioad solutions are very close to the plane-strain solutions. Also, the effect of a/W on the yielding constraint is more significant than the effect of Mand (W-a)/H.
Ključne besede: welded structures, welded joints, fracture mechanics, cracks, SE(B) specimens, yielding load, yielding constraint parameters
Objavljeno: 06.04.2017; Ogledov: 596; Prenosov: 48
.pdf Celotno besedilo (793,79 KB)
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6.
Fracture toughness of a high-strength low-alloy steel weldment
Jelena Vojvodič-Tuma, Nenad Gubeljak, Borivoj Šuštaršič, Borut Bundara, 2006, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The use of high-strength low-alloy steels for high-performance structures, e.g., pressure vessels and pipelines, requires often high-strength consumables to produce an overmatched welded joint. This globally overmatched welded joint contains local mis-matched regions, which can affect the unstable fracture behaviour of the welded joint and the welded structure itself. If local mis-matched regions are present in the vicinity of a crack tip, then the fracture toughness of the weld metal can be significantly lower than that of the base metal. In this paper, the influence of the weld-metal microstructure on the fracture behaviour is estimated enabling an evaluation of the resistance to stable crack growth through different microstructures. The lower bound of the fracture toughness for different microstructures was evaluated using a modified Weibull distribution. The results, obtained using specimens with a through thickness crack front, indicated a low fracture toughness, caused by the strength mis-matching interaction along the crack front. In the case of through-the-thickness specimens, at least one local brittle zone (LBZ) or a local soft region is incorporated into the process zone in the vicinity of the crack tip. Hence, an unstable fracture occurred with small stable crack propagation, or without it. Despite the fact that the differences between the impact toughness of the weld metal and the base metal can be insignificant, the fracture toughness of a weld metal can be significantly lower.
Ključne besede: fracture mechanics, welded joint, crack-tip opening displacement, resistance curves
Objavljeno: 16.03.2017; Ogledov: 349; Prenosov: 38
.pdf Celotno besedilo (502,10 KB)
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7.
Primerjava lomne žilavosti TVP, izmerjene pri dveh vrstah majhnih preizkušancev
Vladimir Gliha, Tomaž Vuherer, Boris Ule, Jelena Vojvodič-Tuma, 2000, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Na simulatorju Gleeble smo pripravili vzorce materiala z mikrostrukturo štirih različnih TVP ob črti taljenja. Iz njih smo izdelali preizkušance za merjenje udarne in lomne žilavosti. Lomno žilavost smo izmerili pri dveh vrstah majhnih preizkušancev z razpoko: pri okroglih nateznih in upogibnih SENB-preizkušancih. Pri prvih smo lahko določili ▫$K_{Ic}$▫, pri drugih pa ▫$theta_{c}$▫. Ko primerjamo vrednosti ▫$theta_{c}$▫ s ▫$K_{Ic}$▫, dobimo preoptimistične rezultate. Debelina SENB-preizkušancev je tudi pri zelo nizki lommni žilavosti še premajhna.
Ključne besede: zvarni spoj, konstrukcijsko jeklo, toplotno vplivano področje (TVP), črta taljenja, termični vpliv, lomna žilavost
Objavljeno: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 436; Prenosov: 75
.pdf Celotno besedilo (202,26 KB)
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8.
Vpliv meje tečenja in temperature na odpornostne krivulje J-R jekel s povišano trdnostjo
Janko Legat, Nenad Gubeljak, Jelena Vojvodič-Tuma, 1998, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Namen tega dela in eksperimentalnih raziskav je ugotavljanje vpliva meje tečenja in temperature preizkušanje na odpornost materiala proti stabilnemu širjenju razpoke (krivulje odpornosti J-R) za konstrukcijsko jeklo in dva mikrolegirana jekla s povišano trdnostjo. Vsi trije materiali so bili preizkušani v treh različnih stanjih: dobavljeno (normalizirano ali poboljšano), deformirano in deformacijsko starano stanje. Preizkusi so bili opravljeni na standardnih preizkušancih CT pri sobni temperaturi in pri temperaturi neduktilnega loma. Za določitev prirastka razpoke med preizkusom je bila uporabljena metoda elastične popustljivosti. Dobljeni rezultati kažejo, da pride pri jeklih z višjo mejo plastičnosti s spremembo stanja materiala in temperature do večjega padca odpornosti materiala proti stabilnemu širjenju razpoke kot pri jeklih z nižjo trdnostjo.
Ključne besede: integral J, odpornostne krivulje J-R, lomna žilavost
Objavljeno: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 472; Prenosov: 21
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