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The weaponisation of drones – a threat from above used for terrorist purposes
Ice Ilijevski, Zlate Dimovski, Kire Babanoski, 2021, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: The subject of this paper is to determine the threat of drones (unmanned aerial vehicles – UAVs), which are evolving rapidly and becoming more efficient, powerful, and easily weaponised, with regard to their use by terrorist organisations. Because of the precision, efficiency, and economy of drones, in the last decade terrorist organisations have used these to carry out attacks all over the world. The paper discusses the prevention and the countermeasures undertaken by national authorities, as well as the development of defensive tactics against drone strikes. The paper notes that the threat posed drones is even greater than many imagine, as they can be used to attack critical infrastructure. Design/Methods/Approach: The tactical ways in which terrorist organisations have made malicious use of drones are considered and described in the paper. In order to better understand the core of this problem, the methods and techniques of attack, the characteristics of the drones and the measures taken by the security and intelligence services in the fight against this threat are reviewed and assessed. All these questions were also addressed by theorists researching this field in semi-structured interviews conducted online. Findings: Because of the rapid development of the technology and progress in the area of drone production, as well as their low price and the availability, drones can be easily transformed into improvised explosive devices that are attractive to many terrorist organisations and individuals, producing a new type of asymmetrical threat. The threat coming from air that is posed by drones is very sophisticated and complex, and deserves more attention from national security authorities. Moreover, the development and introduction of protective and preventive approaches and mechanisms on an international level, and full implementation on a national level, is essential to prevent planned attacks with drones. Originality/Value: This topic is rarely discussed in security research and studies. The paper offers a solid overview of the problems and threats that drones are already causing to law enforcement agencies, and the challenges for national authorities with regard to preventing them.
Ključne besede: drone, unmanned aerial vehicle, terrorism, terrorist attack, threat
Objavljeno v DKUM: 26.01.2022; Ogledov: 778; Prenosov: 16
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Republic of Macedonia as a transit country for the illegal trafficking in the "Balkan route"
Zlate Dimovski, Kire Babanoski, Ice Ilijevski, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: This study aims to give an empirical overview of the illegal trafficking with human beings, drugs and weapons in the Republic of Macedonia and its involvement in the transnational crime within the “Balkan Route”. Design/Methods/Approach: A qualitative-quantitative approach will be used, using analysis of the current scientific literature, academic publications and scientific papers from this area, and statistical methods using statistical analysis and interpretations of data on committed crimes and the perpetrators of illegal trafficking (with national and international elements). Findings: The scope and structure of this crime in the Republic of Macedonia and its international character will be seen through empirical data and discussions. Research limitations / implications: Difficulties in the study of the transit position of the Republic of Macedonia within the “Balkan Route” especially in terms of illegal trafficking, are related to limitations in revealing the dark figure in this type of crime. Our research is largely based on existing scientific expertise and expert estimates and prognosis. Practical implications: The practical aim here is to enable the prevention of the transnational illegal trafficking in the Republic of Macedonia as a transit country and its exclusion from the “Balkan Route”. Originality/Value: The conclusions which arise from this study should contribute to creating and updating of the national strategy and optimal measures in combating trafficking in Macedonia by law enforcement agencies, thereby preventing the transit of criminality from the Middle East, through Macedonian territory into the Western countries.
Ključne besede: illegal trafficking, “Balkan Route”, Republic of Macedonia, transit
Objavljeno v DKUM: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 974; Prenosov: 40
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