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1.
Comparison of the mechanical properties of hardfacings made by standard coated stick electrodes and a newly developed rectangular stick electrode
Edvard Bjelajac, Andrej Skumavc, Gorazd Lojen, Mirza Manjgo, Tomaž Vuherer, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Cladding with a stick electrode is one of the oldest arc processes for adding a deposit on a base material. The process is suitable for outdoor working, but the disadvantages are low productivity and large dilution rates. In this work, a simple solution is proposed, which would enable cladding of a larger area with one pass and decrease the dilution rate at the same time—a new type of electrode was developed, exhibiting a rectangular cross-section instead of a round one. Hardfacings, welded with E Fe8 electrodes according to EN 14 700 Standard were welded on mild steel S355 J2 base material with three different coated stick electrodes. The first one was a commercially available, standard, round hardfacing electrode, the second was the same, but with a thinner coating, and the third one was a newly developed rectangular electrode. All three types had equal cross-sections of the metallic core and the same type of coating. Manufacturing of the rectangular electrodes in the laboratory is explained briefly. One- and multi-layer deposits were welded with all three types. Differences were observed in the arc behavior between the round and rectangular electrodes. With the rectangular electrode, the microstructure of the deposit was finer, penetration was shallower, and dilution rates were lower, while the hardness was higher, residual stresses predominantly compressive, and the results of instrumented Charpy impact tests and fracture mechanics tests were better.
Ključne besede: hardfacing, dilution rate, hardness, Charpy impact toughness, residual stress, fracture toughness
Objavljeno v DKUM: 14.05.2024; Ogledov: 192; Prenosov: 9
.pdf Celotno besedilo (10,82 MB)
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2.
Experimental study of crack propagation through cladded 316L/S355 steel produced by the hot-roll bonding process
Edvard Bjelajac, Andrej Skumavc, Fidan Smaili, Gorazd Lojen, Jožef Predan, Tomaž Vuherer, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: A hot-rolled clad plate made of 316L stainless steel and S355 carbon steel was produced in a real industrial environment via GMAW welding, vacuuming, preheating to 1240 °C, and hot-roll bonding on four stand plate mills in nine passes with reduction rates between 20-6% per pass. The clad plates were solution annealed to achieve the usual delivery condition. Ultrasound testing showed a bonding rate of 100%. Metallographic examination revealed predominantly low concentrations of oxides at the interface. The tensile strength of the bond reached 155 MPa. The shear strength always satisfied the requirements of ASTM A264. It was observed that the concentration of oxide particles influenced the shear strength strongly. The lowest measured value was 172 MPa. Specimens notched in the base material and specimens notched in the clad layer were used in the Charpy impact test. In every case, only the notched layer broke, while the other layer was only bent. The absorbed energies were always higher than those of each material alone. Fracture mechanic tests gave similar results. The crack could not propagate from the notched layer into the other one, regardless of the material of the notched layer. Instead, delamination occurred. Due to delamination, K1c could not be determined, so KQ was given instead.
Ključne besede: clad plate, hot-roll bonding, shear strength, tensile strength, impact toughness, crack propagation
Objavljeno v DKUM: 28.03.2024; Ogledov: 125; Prenosov: 9
.pdf Celotno besedilo (18,79 MB)
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