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1.
Physical activity drops during summer holidays for 6- to 9-year-old children
Tadeja Volmut, Rado Pišot, Jurij Planinšec, Boštjan Šimunič, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Regular physical activity (PA) reduces the health risk of childhood obesity and associated chronic diseases as well as mental health problems. Since PA declines as children age as well with future generations it is of highest importance to intervene in school and out-of-school settings. Out-of-school periods affect children's PA as it is mainly left to the interest and motivation of their parents. We compared accelerometer-based PA patterns in 93 6- to 9-year old children assessed four times: before (May/June), during (August), and after (September) summer holidays and at a 1-year follow up (May/June). Before summer holidays children were assessed also for anthropometry and motor tests. During summer holidays overall PA decreased by 18% (p < 0.001), physical inactivity increased by 5.5% (p < 0.001), moderate PA decreased by 53% (p < 0.001) and moderate to vigorous PA decreased by 45% (p < 0.001) when compared to before summer holidays. Furthermore, overall PA remained diminished also after summer holidays by 8.8% (p = 0.001) but recovered to baseline values at 1-year follow up. About 30% of overall PA and moderate to vigorous PA decrease during summer holidays could be explained by children's fitness level as a greater decrease was found in children with better results in standing long jump and 300-meter running time. Our finding detects an alarming summer holiday decrease in children PA that should not be neglected in future studies and intervention designs.
Ključne besede: MVPA, otroci, poletne počitnice, gibalna neaktivnost, sedentarnost, pospeškometer, children, vacations, physical inactivity, sedentary behavior, accelerometer
Objavljeno v DKUM: 15.05.2024; Ogledov: 74; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (421,77 KB)
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2.
Sarcopenia parameters in active older adults : an eight-year longitudinal study
Kaja Teraž, Uroš Marušič, Miloš Kalc, Boštjan Šimunič, Primož Pori, Bruno Grassi, Stefano Lazzer, Marco Vicenzo Narici, Mojca Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Pietro Enrico Di Prampero, Carlo Reggiani, Angelina Passaro, Gianni Biolo, Mladen Gasparini, Rado Pišot, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background Sarcopenia is a common skeletal muscle syndrome that is common in older adults but can be mitigated by adequate and regular physical activity. The development and severity of sarcopenia is favored by several factors, the most influential of which are a sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity. The aim of this observational longitudinal cohort study was to evaluate changes in sarcopenia parameters, based on the EWGSOP2 definition in a population of active older adults after eight years. It was hypothesized that selected active older adults would perform better on sarcopenia tests than the average population. Methods The 52 active older adults (22 men and 30 women, mean age: 68.4±5.6 years at the time of their first evaluation) participated in the study at two time points eight-years apart. Three sarcopenia parameters were assessed at both time points: Muscle strength (handgrip test), skeletal muscle mass index, and physical performance (gait speed), these parameters were used to diagnose sarcop0enia according to the EWGSOP2 definition. Additional motor tests were also performed at follow-up measurements to assess participants’ overall fitness. Participants self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior using General Physical Activity Questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up measurements. Results In the first measurements we did not detect signs of sarcopenia in any individual, but after 8 years, we detected signs of sarcopenia in 7 participants. After eight years, we detected decline in ; muscle strength (-10.2%; p<.001), muscle mass index (-5.4%; p<.001), and physical performance measured with gait speed (-28.6%; p<.001). Similarly, self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior declined, too (-25.0%; p=.030 and −48.5%; p<.001, respectively). Conclusions Despite expected lower scores on tests of sarcopenia parameters due to age-related decline, participants performed better on motor tests than reported in similar studies. Nevertheless, the prevalence of sarcopenia was consistent with most of the published literature. Trial registration The clinical trial protocol was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04899531
Ključne besede: elderly, physical activities, sedentary behavior, skeletal muscle disorder, sarcopenia
Objavljeno v DKUM: 25.03.2024; Ogledov: 119; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,47 MB)
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3.
Inter-person differences in isometric coactivations of triceps surae and tibialis anterior decrease in young, but not in older adults after 14 days of bed rest
Matjaž Divjak, Gašper Sedej, Nina Murks, Mitja Gerževič, Uroš Marušič, Rado Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Aleš Holobar, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We examined activation patterns of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), soleus (SO), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles in eight older (58.4 ± 3.3 years) and seven young (23.1 ± 2.9 years) participants, before and after 14 days of horizontal bed rest. Visual feedback on the exerted muscle torque was provided to the participants. The discharge patterns of individual motor units (MUs) were studied in three repetitions of isometric plantar flexion at 30 and 60% of Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC), before, and 1 day after the 14-day bed rest, respectively. In the GL and GM muscles, the older participants demonstrated higher MU discharge rates than the young, regardless of the contraction level, both before and after the bed rest. In the TA and SO muscles, the differences between the older and young participants were less consistent. Detailed analysis revealed person-specific changes in the MU discharge rates after the bed rest. To quantify the coactivation patterns we calculated the correlation coefficients between the cumulative spike trains of identified MUs from each muscle, and measured the root mean square difference of the correlation coefficients between the trials of the same session (intra-session variability) and between different sessions (inter-session variability) in each participant (intra-person comparison) and across participants (inter-person comparison). In the intra-person comparison, the inter-session variability was higher than the intra-session variability, either before or after the bed rest. At 60% MVC torque, the young demonstrated higher inter-person variability of coactivation than the older participants, but this variability decreased significantly after the bed rest. In older participants, inter-person variability was consistently lower at 60% than at 30% MVC torque. In young participants, inter-person variability became lower at 60% than at 30% MVC torque only after the bed rest. Precaution is required when analyzing the MU discharge and coactivation patterns, as individual persons demonstrate individual adaptations to aging or bed rest.
Ključne besede: mišičnoskeletni sistem, mišice, bed rest, staranje, elektromiografija, high density electromyography, muscle disuse, motor units, discharge rate, aging
Objavljeno v DKUM: 07.07.2023; Ogledov: 435; Prenosov: 44
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,31 MB)
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4.
VPLIV HITRE IZGUBE TELESNE MASE PRED NASTOPOM BOKSARJA NA NJEGOVE PSIHOFIZIČNE ZMOGLJIVOSTI IN ORGANIZEM : diplomsko delo
Gregor Simončič, 2013, diplomsko delo

Opis: Diplomsko delo obravnava manipulacijo telesne mase športnikov kot eno pomembnih področij priprav na boksarska tekmovanja. V teoretičnem delu opredeljuje boks kot šport, njegov nastanek in razvoj skozi čas. Poleg boksa je v teoretičnem delu opredeljena tudi telesna sestava in adaptivni procesi človeškega organizma v času športne vadbe. V praktičnem delu raziskave je razložena metodologija, opisani so postopki zbiranja in obdelave podatkov ter prikazani rezultati z interpretacijo. Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti, katere metode za hitro izgubo telesne mase uporablja izbrani vzorec slovenskih boksarjev, odkriti morebitne patološke posledice, ugotoviti neskladje telesnih tekočin ter odkriti stanje hidriranosti in morebitne spremembe telesne sestave med procesom hitre izgube telesne mase. Namen je bil pokazati tudi vplive hitre izgube telesne mase na rezultate motoričnih in kognitivnih testov. Ugotovljeno je bilo, da metode, uporabljene za hitro izgubo telesne mase slovenskih boksarjev, negativno vplivajo na izbrane psihofizične sposobnosti športnikov.
Ključne besede: boks, telesna sestava, hitra izguba telesne mase, dehidracija, adaptacija človeškega organizma
Objavljeno v DKUM: 28.01.2022; Ogledov: 512; Prenosov: 19
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,11 MB)

5.
Vpliv dveh ur atletike na gibalno/športno aktivnost otrok
Tadeja Volmut, Boštjan Šimunič, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Namen študije je bil ugotoviti, koliko izvenšolska organizirana vadba atletike pripomore k dvigu količine in intenzivnosti gibalne/športne aktivnosti otrok med samo uro atletike in izven nje. Z merilnikom pospeška smo izmerili tedensko gibalno/športno aktivnost 22 otrok (11 dečkov, starih 6,6 ± 1,2 leta), vključujoč dve uri organizirane vadbe atletike. Med uro atletike je skupna gibalna/športna aktivnost 1787 ± 620 sunkov/minuto (brez atletike 615,5 ± 116,6), prevladuje gibalna neaktivnost (29 ± 11,7 minute) ter srednja in visoka intenzivna gibalna/športna aktivnost (19,0 ± 8,9 minute). Dve uri atletike na teden povečata povprečno dnevno srednjo in visoko intenzivno gibalno/športno aktivnost (16 %, P < 0,001) ter zmanjšata čas gibalne neaktivnosti (–10 %, P < 0,001). Atletika sicer prispeva k doseganju priporočil na področju gibanja, toda stremeti bi bilo treba k še večji intenzivnosti izvedbe ur atletike.
Ključne besede: gibalne sposobnosti, motorične sposobnosti, športne aktivnosti, otroci, atletika
Objavljeno v DKUM: 12.10.2017; Ogledov: 1511; Prenosov: 193
.pdf Celotno besedilo (316,54 KB)
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6.
Lower correlation between biceps femoris contraction time and maximal running speed in children than in adults : a longitudinal study in 9- to 14-year old children
Jernej Završnik, Rado Pišot, Tadeja Volmut, Katja Koren, Helena Blažun Vošner, Peter Kokol, Janez Vošner, Boštjan Šimunič, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Biceps femoris is a major propulsor muscle in sprinting and its contraction time negatively correlates to the running speeds of adults. Our aim was to compare age and gender-related correlations between vastus lateralis and biceps femoris contraction times and running speeds during a longitudinal study of 9- to 14-year old children. On a yearly basis we conducted vastus lateralis and biceps femoris tensiomyographic measurements of muscle contraction time and maximal running speeds measured during 7 meter sprints with flying starts using photocells in 107 children (53 boys). Vastus lateralis contraction time was not correlated with the running speed. However, biceps femoris contraction time was negatively correlated with the running speed only in boys after the age of 12.9 years (Pearson r ranges from -0.391 to -0.426; p < 0.002). It was concluded that biceps femoris contraction time is far less correlated with running speed than in adult athletes (Pearson r = -0.60); however, the correlation is gender and age-specific. It seems that the knee flexor and hip extensor, biceps femoris, is not as yet the major determinant of running speed in 9- to 14-year old children at that age.
Ključne besede: skeletal muscles, biceps femoris, vastus lateralis, tensiomyography, pediatrics
Objavljeno v DKUM: 21.07.2017; Ogledov: 2237; Prenosov: 135
.pdf Celotno besedilo (604,33 KB)
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7.
Biomechanical characteristics of skeletal muscles and associations between running speed and contraction time in 8- to 13-year-old children
Jernej Završnik, Rado Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Peter Kokol, Helena Blažun Vošner, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Objective: To investigate associations between running speeds and contraction times in 8- to 13-year-old children. Method: This longitudinal study analyzed tensiomyographic measurements of vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles’ contraction times and maximum running speeds in 107 children (53 boys, 54 girls). Data were evaluated using multiple correspondence analysis. Results: A gender difference existed between the vastus lateralis contraction times and running speeds. The running speed was less dependent on vastus lateralis contraction times in boys than in girls. Analysis of biceps femoris contraction times and running speeds revealed that running speeds of boys were much more structurally associated with contraction times than those of girls, for whom the association seemed chaotic. Conclusion: Joint category plots showed that contraction times of biceps femoris were associated much more closely with running speed than those of the vastus lateralis muscle. These results provide insight into a new dimension of children’s development.
Ključne besede: children, tensiomyography, running speed, contraction time, skelet muscle, motor development
Objavljeno v DKUM: 13.07.2017; Ogledov: 1379; Prenosov: 385
.pdf Celotno besedilo (454,48 KB)
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8.
Kvantno računalništvo in kriptografija
Aleš Holobar, 2016, univerzitetni, visokošolski ali višješolski učbenik z recenzijo

Ključne besede: kvantno računalništvo, kvantna mehanika, kriptografija, kvantno dešifriranje, kvantna omrežja, Turingova arhitektura, algoritmi, kvantni algoritmi, programiranje, kvantne komunikacije, kvantno računanje, učbeniki
Objavljeno v DKUM: 12.08.2016; Ogledov: 2751; Prenosov: 426
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,82 MB)

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