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1.
The aerobic biodegradation kinetics of plant tannins in industrial wastewater
Marko Tramšek, Andreja Goršek, Peter Glavič, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper describes an experimental determination of the biodegradation rate for tannins present in industrial wastewater, after the extraction of chestnut chips. Experiments were performed in a laboratory aerobic reactor (Armfield) by using biomass from an existing industrial wastewater treatment plant. The outlet tannins concentration was determined under various processing conditions. Simultaneously, an optical microscope was used to monitor the mix of microbiological cultures in the biomass. On the basis of data obtained in experiments, non-linear regression was used to perform parametric analysis of various kinetic models, which took into account inhibition, as quoted in literature (Haldane, Edwards, Aiba, Luong). The statistical analysis, based on the P-criterion, F-criterion, adjusted coefficient of determination, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and root mean squared error, showed that the biodegradation of plant tannins in industrial wastewater under selected conditions for aerobic digestion, can be most successfully described statistically by the Aiba's kinetic model.
Keywords: plant tannins, susbtrate inhibition, kinetic models, statistic analysis, aerobic industrial wastewater digestion
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1135; Downloads: 23
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2.
Methodology for determination of anaerobic digestion kinetics using a bench top digester
Marko Tramšek, Andreja Goršek, Peter Glavič, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents a methodology for determining the microbial growth kinetics of an ideal anaerobic process in a non-ideal laboratory anaerobic digester (Armfield). Some laboratory experiments were performed, to confirm the proposed methodology. Having the same zero biomass concentration, some process parameters were changed and their influence on substrate outlet concentration was monitored. The specific growth rate of the biomass, the saturation constant of the substrate, and the yield coefficient were calculated, on the basis of the measured values. These parameters enabled us to perform a dynamic simulation of an anaerobic process in ideal continuously-stirred tank reactors (CSTR). The results represented the mass concentration profiles for substrate and biomass, from which the time required for reaching the steady state (60 d), where the operation is optimal, could be determined. The laboratory anaerobic digester provided operational process data, which are applicable for wastewater treatment plant design purposes.
Keywords: wastewater treatment, anaerobic digester, kinetics, dynamic simulation
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1501; Downloads: 78
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3.
Aerobic digester design for the biodegradation of plant tannins in industrial wastewater
Marko Tramšek, Andreja Goršek, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper describes aerobic digester design for the biodegradation of plant tannins in industrial wastewater. For optimal design, using the criterion of minimal total holding time, some experimental investigations into tannins' biodegradation rate in industrial wastewater were performed in the first part of this research. The chemical oxygen demand method (COD) was applied to follow the tannins degradation rate. The kinetic parameters of a supposed Aiba's inhibition kinetic model were determined using experimental data. In the second part of the study, equations for determining the optimal volumes of two in series connected aerobic digesters were established. Furthermore, a comparison is presented of volumes between one and two in series connected aerobic digester systems regarding wastewater volume flow rate, qV = 120 m3 d-1 and wastewater treatment efficiency, COD = 9 8%.
Keywords: digester design, plant tannins, Aiba's inhibition kinetic model, aerobic digestion, industrial wastewater
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1194; Downloads: 34
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4.
Synthesis of non-isothermal heat integrated water networks in chemical processes
Miloš Bogataj, Miguel J. Bagajewicz, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents a new approach for the simultaneous synthesis and optimization of heat integrated water networks. A new superstructure for heat exchanger network (HEN) synthesis is proposed. The procedure is based on mixed integer non-linear mathematical programming (MINLP). Four relevant examples are presented to illustrate various aspects of the proposed approach.
Keywords: chemical processing, chemical process design, process water networks, water networks, wastewater minimization, heat integration, MINLP, HEN synthesis, superstructures, process synthesis
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1387; Downloads: 66
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5.
Removal efficiency of COD, total P and total N components from municipal wastewater using hollow-fibre MBR
Irena Petrinić, Mirjana Čurlin, Jasmina Korenak, Marjana Simonič, 2011, professional article

Abstract: The membrane bioreactor (MBR) integrates well within the conventionally activated sludge system regarding advanced membrane separation for wastewater treatment. Over the last decade, a number of MBR systems have been constructed worldwide and this system is now accepted as a technology of choice for wastewater treatment especially for municipal wastewater. The aim of this work was to investigate and compare submerged MBR with conventionally-activated sludge system for the treatment of municipal wastewater in Maribor, Slovenia. It can be concluded from the results, that the efficiencies being determined by the parameters were satisfied, such as, chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorous, and total nitrogen, which were 97%,75%, and 90%, respectively. The efficiencies of ultrafiltration membrane for the same parameters were also determined, and compared with biological treatment. The results of this analysis show an additional effect regarding an improvement in the quality of the permeate but primary treatment is also very important. For successfully application of MBR system smaller grid for primary treatment is needed.
Keywords: municipal wastewater treatment, membrane bioreactor, membrane filtration, biological treatment
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1252; Downloads: 66
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Removal of vat and disperse dyes from residual pad liquors
Vera Golob, Alenka Ojstršek, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: The efficiency of three wastewater treatment techniques, coagulation/flocculation, adsorption and ultrafiltration, has been studied for the removal of vat and disperse dyes from residual pad liquors. Three inorganic coagulants Al2(SO4)3 18H2O, FeSO4 7H2O, FeCl3 6H2O and commercial cationic flocculant, as individuals and in combination, were tested for the coagulation/flocculation methods. Granular activated carbon was used as an adsorbent in the adsorption technique. Ultrafiltration was performed using a polyethersulfone membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 10 kDa. Dye removal was evaluated as the difference between concentrations of dyes in pad liquors before and after a particular treatment using absorbance measurements.The obtained results indicated over 90% of dye removal using appropriate coagulants and only 40% using activated carbon. The best results, dye removal over 98%, were achieved using the ultrafiltration technique.
Keywords: textile dyeing, disperse dyes, wastewater, decoloration, wastewater treatment, coagulation, flocculation, adsorption, ultrafiltration, vat dyes
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1426; Downloads: 78
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8.
Wastewater treatment after reactive printing
Sonja Šostar-Turk, Marjana Simonič, Irena Petrinić, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: Membrane filtration of wastewater after textile printing with reactive dyes isdescribed. The wastewater from a Slovenian factory, whose output is approx. 80% reactive dyes printed and dyed on cotton, was studied. In particular, the presence of urea, sodium alginate, oxidation agent and reactive dyes, used forthe printing paste preparation, in the wastewater was studied. Chemical analyses of actual, non-purified, wastewater showed that many Slovenian regulations were exceeded. The study of membrane filtration is based on a pilot wastewater treatment plantČ ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) units. The quality of the wastewater was improved by ultrafiltration, butits effluent still does not conform to the specification of concentration limits for emission into water. Permeate coming from RO meets the required specification and, therefore, could be re-used in the washing process of printed textiles.
Keywords: textile printing, reactive dyes, wastewater treatment, membrane filtration, pilot plant
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1915; Downloads: 65
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9.
Ultrasound in textile dyeing an the decolouration/mineralization of textile dyes
Simona Vajnhandl, Alenka Majcen Le Marechal, 2005, review article

Abstract: In recent decades ultrasound has established an important place in different industrial processes such as the medical field, and has started to revolutionize environmental protection. The idea of using ultrasound in textile wet processes is not a new one. On the contrary there are many reportsfrom the 1950s and 1960s describing the beneficial effects of ultrasound in textile wet processes. The aim of this paper is to review some fundamentals of ultrasound, its broad application and gather some new researchand studies regarding ultrasound application in textile wet processes,with the emphasis on textile dyeing and the decolouration/mineralization of textile wastewaters.
Keywords: textile industry, textile dyes, wastewater, decoloration, degradation, ultrsound
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1072; Downloads: 30
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10.
Efficiency of the coagulation/flocculation method for the treatment of dyebath effluents
Vera Golob, Aleksandra Vinder, Marjana Simonič, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: Textile dyeing processes are among the most environment-unfriendly industrial processes, because they produce coloured wastewaters that are heavily polluted with dyes, textile auxiliaries and chemicals. The coagulation/flocculation method was studied as a wastewater treatment technique for the decolourization of residual dyebath effluents after dyeing cotton/polyamide blends using reactive and acid dyes. It was discovered that acombination of aluminium sulphate and a cationic organic flocculant yields an effective treatment for residual dyebath wastewaters since almost complete decolourization was achieved, TOC, COD, AOX, BOD and the anionic surfactants were reduced and the biodegradability was increased.
Keywords: textile industry, reactive dyes, acid dyes, wastewater, čiščenje odpadnih vodwastewater treatment, flocculation, coagulation, ecological analyses, wastewater decoloration, Jar-tests
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1518; Downloads: 66
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