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The role of ascorbate–glutathione system and volatiles emitted by insect-damaged lettuce roots as navigation signals for insect and slug parasitic nematodes
Žiga Laznik, Mitja Križman, Jure Zekič, Mihaela Roškarič, Stanislav Trdan, Andreja Urbanek Krajnc, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The effect of wireworm-damaged lettuce roots on the antioxidative defense system (ascorbate–glutathione cycle, photosynthetic pigments) and movement of insect/slug parasitic nematodes towards determined root exudates was studied in a glasshouse experiment. Lettuce seedlings were grown in a substrate soil in the absence/presence of wireworms (Elateridae). The ascorbate– glutathione system and photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by HPLC, while volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by lettuce roots were investigated by GC-MS. Herbivore-induced root compounds, namely 2,4-nonadienal, glutathione, and ascorbic acid, were selected for a chemotaxis assay with nematodes Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Phasmarhabditis papillosa, and Oscheius myriophilus. Root pests had a negative effect on the content of photosynthetic pigments in the leaves of infested plants, indicating that they reacted to the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using lettuce as a model plant, we recognized the ascorbate–glutathione system as a redox hub in defense response against wireworms and analyzed its role in root-exudate-mediated chemotaxis of nematodes. Infected plants also demonstrated increased levels of volatile 2,4-nonadienal. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs, S. feltiae, S. carpocapsae, and H. bacteriophora) proved to be more mobile than parasitic nematodes O. myriophilus and P. papillosa towards chemotaxis compounds. Among them, 2,4-nonadienal repelled all tested nematodes. Most exudates that are involved in belowground tritrophic interactions remain unknown, but an increasing effort is being made in this field of research. Understanding more of these complex interactions would not only allow a better understanding of the rhizosphere but could also offer ecologically sound alternatives in the pest management of agricultural systems.
Keywords: lettuce, wireworms, ascorbate–glutathione system, root volatile organic compounds, entomopathogenic nematodes, slug parasitic nematodes
Published in DKUM: 15.02.2024; Views: 164; Downloads: 7
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Composition of organic compounds adsorbed on PM10 in the air above Maribor
Alen Miuc, Ernest Vončina, Uroš Lešnik, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Organic compounds in atmospheric particulate matter above Maribor were analysed in 120 samples of PM10 sampled according to the EN 12341:2014 reference method. Organic compounds compositions were investigated together with the primary and secondary sources of air pollution. Silylation as derivatisation method was used for the GC-MS determination of volatile and semi-volatile polar organic compounds. Distribution of fatty acids, n-alkanes and iso-alkanes, phthalate esters, siloxanes, different sterols, various sugars and sugar alcohols, compounds of lignin and resin acids, dicarboxylic acids from photochemical reactions, PAHs, organic nitrogen compounds and products from secondary oxi- dation of monoterpenes were determined. The use of silicone grease for the purpose of lubricating the impact surface of the air sampler caused higher values of gravimetric determination. Solid particles may have been bounced from the surface of a greasy impact plate and re-entrained within the air stream and then collected on a sample filter. The carryover of siloxanes was at least from 5% up to 15% of the accumulated particles weight, depending on ambient temperature. This was the reason that the gravimetric results for determination of PM10 according to the standard EN 12341:2014 were overestimated.
Keywords: secondary organic aerosol, volatile organic compounds, PM10, EN 1234:2014
Published in DKUM: 17.08.2017; Views: 1698; Downloads: 329
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4.
PRIPRAVA IN KARAKTERIZACIJA SiO2 AEROGELOV MODIFICIRANIH Z ORGANSKIMI FUNKCIONALNIMI SKUPINAMI TER NJIHOVA UPORABA V ADSORPCIJSKIH PROCESIH
Suzana Štandeker, 2010, dissertation

Abstract: Z inkorporacijo metiltrimetoksisilana (MTMS) in trimetiletoksisilana (TMES) v standardno sol-gel sintezo smo pripravili monolitne aerogele SiO2 z različno stopnjo hidrofobnosti. Odlične lastnosti aerogelov, dobljene s sol-gel sintezo, smo ohranili s sušenjem s superkritičnim CO2. Stopnjo hidrofobnosti aerogelov smo določili s pomočjo merjenja kontaktnega kota () med kapljico vode in površino aerogela. Karakterizacijo aerogelov smo izvedli tudi z infrardečo spektroskopijo s Fourier-evo transformacijo (FTIR), diferencialno dinamično kalorimetrijo (DSC) in termogravimetrično analizo (TGA), sorpcijo N2 ter vrstično elektronsko mikroskopijo (SEM). Tako smo opazovali vpliv modifikacije na lastnosti SiO2 aerogelov. Te modificirane aerogele je možno nadalje uporabiti v adsorpcijskih procesih in so dobra alternativa konvencionalnim adsorbentom, kot sta aktivno oglje (AC) in silika gel (SG). Super hidrofobna aerogela smo nadalje uporabili za odstranjevanje različnih toksičnih organskih spojin (toluen, benzen, klorobenzen, etilbenzen, ksilen, kloroform, 1,2-dikloroetan in trikloroetilen) iz vode. Adsorpcijske izoterme smo določili s pomočjo konvencionalne šaržne ekvilibracijske metode. Na podlagi rezultatov meritev adsorpcijske kapacitete lahko trdimo, da so takšni modificirani hidrofobni SiO2 aerogeli odlični adsorbenti in v primerjavi z granuliranim aktivnim ogljem (GAC) izkazujejo kapacitete, ki so 15 do 400-krat večje v primeru vseh testiranih organskih topil. Adsorpcijske lastnosti aerogelov so stabilne tudi po dvajsetih ciklih adsorpcije/desorpcije. Nadalje smo uporabili SiO2 aerogele različne stopnje hidrofobnosti za odstranjevanje in povrnitev hlapov organskih topil (benzen, toluen, etilbenzen in ksilen) iz zraka. Adsorpcijsko kapaciteto različnih aerogelov smo določili z uporabo mini-kolone. Kontinuirane meritve adsorpcije nam kažejo, da so SiO2 aerogeli odlični adsorbenti hlapov BTEX (benzen, toluen, etilbenzen in ksilen) iz zraka. V primerjavi z najbolj uporabljanimi adsorbenti, kot sta AC in SG, aerogeli izkazujejo kapacitete, ki zelo presegajo kapacitete obeh konvencionalnih adsorbentov. Z večanjem stopnje hidrofobnosti aerogeli postanejo manj učinkoviti, vendar je njihova prednost ta, da ne vežejo zračne vlage iz zraka. Izvedli smo tudi modifikacijo površine SiO2 aerogelov z amino (-NH2) ali merkapto (-SH) funkcionalnimi skupinami. V običajni sol-gel sintezi smo uporabili različne ko-prekurzorje, ki v svoji strukturi vsebujejo želeno funkcionalno skupino. Alkogele smo posušili z ekstrakcijo topila s superkritičnim (SC) CO2. Modificirane aerogele smo analizirali z uporabo FTIR-a, DSC/TGA-ja, sorpcijo N2 ter SEM-a ter tako preverili učinkovitost modifikacije ter vpliv le-te na lastnosti aerogelov. Za merkapto modificirane aerogele smo ugotovili, da so dobri adsorbenti Cu(II) in Hg(II) ionov iz vode. Sposobnost odstranjevanja Cu(II) in Hg(II) ionov iz vode teh aerogelov smo določili s šaržnimi adsorpcijskimi testi pri ravnotežnih pogojih. Aerogelni adsorbent z merkapto funkcionalnimi skupinami izkazuje velik adsorpcijski potencial za ione obeh težkih kovin in 99% učinkovitost adsorpcije je bila dosežena v pH območju med 4 in 6. Ravnotežne eksperimentalne podatke smo korelirali s Freundlich-ovim in Langmuir-jevim modelom adsorpcijskih izoterm ter jih primerjali z drugimi adsorbenti, ki se uporabljajo v te namene; ugotovili smo, da so naši adsorbenti zelo učinkoviti.
Keywords: sol-gel sinteza, aerogeli, sušenje s SC CO2, hidrofobnost, organska modifikacija, adsorpcija, VOCs (volatile organic compounds), BTEX, Cu(II) ioni, Hg(II) ioni
Published in DKUM: 08.11.2010; Views: 4245; Downloads: 383
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