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1.
Violence against the elderly - analysis of further research needs based on a systematic review of research
Teja Primc, Branko Lobnikar, Kaja Prislan, 2021, review article

Abstract: Purpose of the Paper: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the current state of research on the topic of elder abuse both in the institutional and domestic environment and to present the key findings of existing studies. The paper also aims to shed light on areas requiring additional research and present the directions for further research. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted using the PRISMA method in the Web of Science and Scopus databases. The review included 29 papers published between 2010 and 2021. Findings: Elder abuse is an under-researched topic. The lack of research is particularly apparent in the incidence and nature of the problem in the home environment. Previous studies focus on the various forms of abuse, its perpetrators and risk factors. Rates of psychological abuse, neglect and physical abuse are high in nursing homes and among older visitors to ambulatory care facilities and emergency departments, while self-neglect, neglect and psychological abuse are prevalent in the home environment. Women between the ages of 70 and 75, who are socially isolated and require daily care, are more exposed to abuse. The perpetrators of the abuse are most often family members. Limitations/Applicability of the Research: The ‘paper’s findings provide insight into research on elder abuse and can serve as a basis for planning research into this phenomenon. The paper highlights research gaps and introduces opportunities for improvements in the systemic approaches when addressing the issue. Originality/Relevance of the Paper: The paper presents the systematic and up to date analysis of past studies on elder abuse. The results are intended for professionals and researchers working in the field.
Keywords: violence, abuse, neglect, elderly, systematic literature review
Published in DKUM: 26.01.2022; Views: 225; Downloads: 12
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2.
Study of different forms of peer violence in primary and secondary schools – a systematic literature review
Teja Primc, Teja Lobnikar, Blažka Tratnik, Miha Dvojmoč, 2021, review article

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the literature on peer violence in primary and secondary schools, and to present key findings of these studies. Design/Methods/Approach: The systematic literature review was performed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases, using the PRISMA method. Findings: A total of 81 articles were selected for the final review. The issue of bullying and cyberbullying is extensive and complex, yet there is still no single definition of this phenomenon. Traditional bullying in primary schools reaches up to 76%, while the prevalence of cyberbullying varies below 10%. The perpetrators are more often boys, while girls are often in the role of victims. Violence is more common in younger children. Risk factors for exposure to violence include belonging to an ethnic minority and the lower economic class. Well-developed emotional intelligence is highlighted as a protective factor. There is more cyberbullying in secondary schools (67%), while traditional bullying is as high as 97%. Male students are more often perpetrators, while female students are more often victims. Students with low self-esteem, members of ethnic minorities and lower economic classes are more exposed to violence. Risk factors for causing violence include a previous history of violence, substance abuse, bad associations, and a poor family environment. Research Limitations/Implications: The findings of the article provide a starting point for the compilation of a comprehensive plan for researching the phenomenon of peer violence in primary and secondary schools in Slovenia, and serve as a basis for the development and implementation of a programme for establishing a safe educational environment. Originality/Value: The article is the starting point for an empirical study that will address peer violence in primary and secondary schools in Slovenia.
Keywords: bullying, cyberbullying, peer violence, primary schools, secondary schools
Published in DKUM: 26.01.2022; Views: 156; Downloads: 8
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3.
Improving Frontline Responses to Domestic Violence in Europe
2021, scientific monograph

Abstract: The monograph on improving the response of first responders to domestic violence in Europe aims to identify gaps in the cooperation of first-line responders and deliver recommendations, toolkits and collaborative training for European police organizations and medical and social work professionals. The goal is to improve integrate institutional response to domestic violence. Shared training and adequate risk assessment tools will create a positive feedback loop, increasing reporting rates of domestic violence to police, the medical profession, and community and social work practitioners.
Keywords: domestic violence, first responders, risk assessments, police, social work, health, cooperation, training, Europe
Published in DKUM: 09.12.2021; Views: 299; Downloads: 51
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4.
Nightlife entertainment spots in cities as a potential criminogenic focus of sexual harassment
Tinkara Bulovec, Katja Eman, 2020, review article

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the issue of sexual harassment, with a focus on nightlife entertainment areas in cities. It also presents the theoretical background, manifestation, and comprehensiveness of the phenomenon, as well as the victimological perspectives and some criminological interpretations. Design/Methods/Approach: A review of literature related to sexual harassment was conducted for the purpose of this paper, after which the method of deduction was applied to draw general findings with respect to the nightlife entertainment areas in cities. Findings: When reviewing the issue, it was found that the critical element for identifying diverse verbal, non-verbal and physical acts as sexual harassment stems from the fact that these acts are unsolicited and unwanted by the harassed individual. Sexual harassment occurs in all areas of human participation, either as part of domestic violence, in the workplace, in the context of education or in public places, where the nightlife (entertainment) areas in cities remain rather under-researched. The criminogenic potential of nightlife areas arises from, inter alia, the presence of alcohol and drugs in these areas, which contributes to the emergence of various types of deviant behaviours, including sexual harassment. Studies conducted abroad reveal that street harassment and stranger harassment represent an issue occurring in public places that, firstly, are not explicitly legally restricted. Secondly, they represent a form of sexual harassment, which is challenging to prove. Originality/Value: The paper focuses on providing an insight into the issue of sexual harassment in nightlife entertainment areas, which was deemed essential in terms of setting potential starting points for further discussion and research. Due to the theoretical nature of the paper, the findings can be used as a base for the empirical study of sexual harassment in nightlife entertainment spots in Slovenia.
Keywords: sexual violence, sexual harassment, street/stranger harassment, nightlife entertainment spots, urban areas
Published in DKUM: 04.01.2021; Views: 365; Downloads: 26
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5.
User violence against employees at nursing homes
Katarina Cesar, Liljana Rihter, Špela Selak, Branko Gabrovec, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: Earlier research has indicated the high exposure of those working in assisting occupations to workplace violence in Slovenia. The purpose of this study is to complement the research gap in investigating violence within social care and determine the types and extent of workplace violence among all employees in a social care institution, the influence of aggressive behaviour of users on the well-being of employees, and the need for education on dealing with the violence to which employees are being exposed. Design/Methods/Approach: Workplace violence was researched quantitatively using a descriptive method. We used a structured survey questionnaire, which was adapted using an existing questionnaire to research the occurrence of violent acts from users against employees at nursing homes and other social care institutions. Findings: The nursing home Dom ob Savinji Celje faces user violence against its employees. The most frequent form of violence against employees is verbal abuse (37.7% of respondents) and the least frequent is unwanted conduct of a sexual nature (5.2% of respondents). Workers employed in healthcare face user violence more often than employees in other fields. Employees most often face a certain form of user violence 1-2 times per year. When an employee meets an aggressive user, the most common emotions are fear, helplessness, uncertainty, feeling under threat, and least often a lack of understanding from fellow employees. Originality/Value: This study focuses on studying workplace violence within a social care institution and complements extant, yet inadequate scientific findings.
Keywords: nursing homes, workplace violence, healthcare, social care, social care institutions
Published in DKUM: 18.05.2020; Views: 534; Downloads: 27
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6.
Adolescents as delinquent actors and as targets of preventive measures
Anabel Taefi, Thomas Görgen, Benjamin Kraus, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: The article aims at examining the prevalence of deviance and delinquency in a sample of students, at explaining property and violent offending via risk factors and examining students’ experiences with and views on preventive approaches. Design/Methods/Approach: Data stem from a school survey conducted among 2186 13–17 year old male and female students, who attended school in an urban or a rural northwest area of Germany. The instrument was developed on the basis of the new ISRD-3 questionnaire and included newly developed questions on students’ experiences with and views on preventive actors and approaches. Descriptive as well as multivariate methods are applied. Findings: Deviance and delinquency were found to be widespread, but mostly of low severity. Different predictors for violent and property offending can be found. Groups of students with differential involvement in delinquency show clearly differentiated profiles with regard to risk factors. Evaluations of preventive actors and approaches are very similar across groups of students with differential delinquent involvement. Research Limitations / Implications: Special schools have been excluded from the sample. Generally, school surveys may fail at including high risk individuals, such as students who skip school. Practical Implications: Findings hint at the importance of including peers and family in preventive approaches. Originality/Value: Extension of a self-report study among youngsters as targets of prevention with questions on their experiences and evaluations of preventive approaches may give implications on differential receptiveness of young people for preventive approaches.
Keywords: self-reports, deviance and delinquency, prevention, youth violence, substance abuse
Published in DKUM: 23.04.2020; Views: 556; Downloads: 18
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7.
Prevention of juvenile crime and deviance : Adolescents' and experts' views in an international perspective
Thomas Görgen, Anneke Evenepoel, Benjamin Kraus, Anabel Taefi, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: This article analyses perspectives on youth crime prevention in samples of 13–17 year old students from 6 European countries and of practitioners/experts in Belgium and Germany. Design/Methods/Approach: Surveys were conducted among urban and rural school students (n = 10682). Expert and practitioner perspectives were taken into account using Delphi surveys, standardized surveys on the state of youth crime prevention, and semistructured interviews with practitioners in the areas where the school surveys were conducted. Findings: While the majority of students have been targeted by drug abuse prevention measures, rates for violence prevention are lower. Students ascribe moderate preventive potential to school and they regard peers and parents as most influential in prevention while professional agents are viewed as less important. Punitive approaches are not rejected, but approaches focusing on individual resources and problems are given priority. Experts point at the significance of socioeconomic factors related to the problem of (youth) delinquency and hence of social policy measures. They recommend prevention starting at an early age, strengthening social skills and following multi-professional approaches. Research Limitations / Implications: Schools surveys excluded special schools, and response rates in expert surveys were low or moderate. Practical Implications: Findings point to young persons’ understanding of factors influencing their behaviour and at connections between involvement in offending and accessibility for approaches to prevention. Expert surveys show needs for improvement in the field of prevention, especially in terms of funding, evaluation, and fundamental strategic approaches. Originality/Value: Perspectives of both actors and targets of preventive approaches are taken into account.
Keywords: prevention, juvenile delinquency, school survey, expert survey, drug abuse, violence
Published in DKUM: 23.04.2020; Views: 527; Downloads: 28
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8.
Juvenile delinquency school failure and dropout in Portugal : drafting a picture in different voices
Ana Cardoso, Heloísa Perista, Paula Carrilho, Mário Jorge Silva, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this article is to address and discuss the relationship between different school paths and self-reported young students’ behaviours and perceptions regarding violence and delinquency. Their views on prevention deserve particular attention. This is though a picture drafted in different voices, since young students’ opinions contrast with those of several other actors in the domain of juvenile delinquency. Design/Methods/Approach: This analysis is based on the YouPrev project findings in Portugal, generated by the different empirical data collection instruments employed, thus combining a quantitative and a qualitative approach. Gender differences as well as differences between urban and rural regions are highlighted whenever relevant. Findings: School failure and dropout is a structural problem in Portugal and some expert views anticipate a reversal in recent trends and a new rise of these phenomena as a result of the current crisis. The YouPrev school survey outcomes in Portugal confirm that young people with negative school integration have a higher life-time prevalence of self-reported delinquency. Among the 1,755 young students surveyed, 29.4% reported they had committed, over their life-time, at least one of the offences listed in the questionnaire. 156 of these students reported that they had committed a violent offence during the last twelve months. Among these, 46 may be described as frequent violent offenders. The concentration of risk factors among the frequent violent offenders shows that these are also victims of other forms of violence in the context where they live in. Young people share the idea that “what works” best in the prevention of juvenile delinquency is to improve their prospects to get a job and to provide them a good general education. Both in the rural and in the urban regions the relationship between young people and the family is seen as crucial either by experts or by the young boys and girls. Research Limitations / Implications: Self-reported delinquency surveys attempt to overcome insufficiencies of the official statistics – these surveys open the possibility to obtain more diverse information and to identify delinquent practices that are not registered. But one of the possible criticisms is that, in these kinds of studies, chronic and persistent delinquents are not represented. In this particular analysis, information is missing for those students who skip school and those whose parents, for different reasons, did not give consent to their participation in the survey. The conduction of expert face-to-face interviews complemented the prospective information collected by the Delphi study, compensating and enriching the relative low number of responses to the survey. Practical Implications: The outcomes promote the awareness-raising on juvenile delinquency and prevention strategies among different actors: experts, schools, and young students. These can also be used as training material for professionals, working in social services and police forces, in particular. Originality/Value: This study contributes to the body of knowledge on the practices and views within the domain of juvenile delinquency and violence. This is a research topic insufficiently explored in Portugal, at least in a comprehensive way, either in terms of subjects or territorial coverage. It also adds to existing research with crossed views, based on a multi-method approach, on the interplay between school failure and dropout and juvenile delinquency and prevention.
Keywords: juvenile delinquency, violence, prevention, school failure, Portugal
Published in DKUM: 20.04.2020; Views: 496; Downloads: 19
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9.
Possibilities of mediation in Republic of Serbia in cases of domestic violence
Nataša Mrvić-Petrović, Milan Počuča, 2015, review article

Abstract: Purpose: This paper analyses the theoretical, legislative and practical advantages and limitations of mediation as an alternative way of resolving the conflict between perpetrator and victim of domestic violence in Serbia. Starting from the premise that mediation in lighter cases of domestic violence is more preferred form of social reaction from the initiation of criminal proceedings; the authors analyse the legislation of the Republic of Serbia and point out that the mutual incompatibility of laws disables use of mediation in practice. Design/Methods/Approach: Based on acceptability of the concept of restorative justice, this scientific work analyses the advantages and limitations of mediation as an alternative way of resolving the conflict of the offender and the victim in cases of domestic violence. Authors use the comparative method, legal dogmatic method, case study method (examples for court practice in Serbia) and statistical data to examine the hypothesis that mediation may constitute a constructive way of resolving less violent conflicts within the family members and why is not enough applied in practice. Findings: Modern criminal political orientation of the “zero” tolerance of domestic violence, which was adopted in law in practice in Serbia is “blocking” use of mediation, which, in public opinion, is seen as an inadequate response to this crime. Results of the analysis show that the Serbian legislature opted for a punitive response and measures of restraining as most important mechanisms for the prevention of domestic violence. Research Limitations / Implications: These data provide insight into the marginal segment of the formal response to domestic violence in Serbia. Originality/Value: Few studies in Serbia comparing foreign experience and domestic social possibilities for the success of mediation in cases of domestic violence.
Keywords: alternative criminal sanction, mediation, domestic violence, Serbia
Published in DKUM: 17.04.2020; Views: 461; Downloads: 20
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10.
Violence towards nursing employees in Slovenia
Branko Gabrovec, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: This paper presents a systematic review of research studies conducted in the field of violence directed towards nursing employees in Slovenia. The purpose of this paper is to establish the types and prevalence of violence, as well as the methodology and deficiencies of the research conducted to date. The findings can support systematic measures for preventing, reporting and surviving such violence. Methods: The descriptive research methodology was applied when examining peer-reviewed literature on violence directed towards nursing employees in Slovenia. A systematic literature review was conducted as it enables data to be obtained from various sources, in our case 15 articles/sources were selected for the analysis, while ensuring a holistic understanding of the research subject. Findings: The results show nursing employees are exposed to a high level of work-related violence against them, which in all fields is considerable, but especially in intensive psychiatric nursing care. Further qualitative research is needed to shed light on the detailed characteristics and background of such violence. Tackling violence within the healthcare system demands a wide and interdisciplinary approach. Practical Implications: The results of this study can provide the basis for further research and the development of a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach to tackle violence directed at nursing employees.
Keywords: violence, aggression, nursing, employees, Slovenia
Published in DKUM: 14.04.2020; Views: 477; Downloads: 28
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