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1.
Lipotoxicity in a vicious cycle of pancreatic beta cell exhaustion
Vladimir Grubelnik, Jan Zmazek, Matej Završnik, Marko Marhl, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Hyperlipidemia is a common metabolic disorder in modern society and may precede hyperglycemia and diabetes by several years. Exactly how disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism are related is still a mystery in many respects. We analyze the effects of hyperlipidemia, particularly free fatty acids, on pancreatic beta cells and insulin secretion. We have developed a computational model to quantitatively estimate the effects of specific metabolic pathways on insulin secretion and to assess the effects of short- and long-term exposure of beta cells to elevated concentrations of free fatty acids. We show that the major trigger for insulin secretion is the anaplerotic pathway via the phosphoenolpyruvate cycle, which is affected by free fatty acids via uncoupling protein 2 and proton leak and is particularly destructive in long-term chronic exposure to free fatty acids, leading to increased insulin secretion at low blood glucose and inadequate insulin secretion at high blood glucose. This results in beta cells remaining highly active in the “resting” state at low glucose and being unable to respond to anaplerotic signals at high pyruvate levels, as is the case with high blood glucose. The observed fatty-acid-induced disruption of anaplerotic pathways makes sense in the context of the physiological role of insulin as one of the major anabolic hormones.
Keywords: diabetes, insulin secretion, lipids, PEP cycle, uncoupling proteins, mitochondrial dysfunction
Published in DKUM: 20.05.2024; Views: 66; Downloads: 2
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2.
Protective role of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins against age-related oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Maša Čater, Lidija Križančić Bombek, 2022, review article

Abstract: The accumulation of oxidative damage to DNA and other biomolecules plays an important role in the etiology of aging and age-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is especially sensitive to oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from the accumulation of mtDNA damage impairs normal cellular function and leads to a bioenergetic crisis that accelerates aging and associated diseases. Age-related mitochondrial dysfunction decreases ATP production, which directly affects insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells and triggers the gradual development of the chronic metabolic dysfunction that characterizes T2D. At the same time, decreased glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle due to mitochondrial damage leads to prolonged postprandial blood glucose rise, which further worsens glucose homeostasis. ROS are not only highly reactive by-products of mitochondrial respiration capable of oxidizing DNA, proteins, and lipids but can also function as signaling and effector molecules in cell membranes mediating signal transduction and inflammation. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of various tissues can be activated by ROS to protect cells from mitochondrial damage. Mitochondrial UCPs facilitate the reflux of protons from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the matrix, thereby dissipating the proton gradient required for oxidative phosphorylation. There are five known isoforms (UCP1-UCP5) of mitochondrial UCPs. UCP1 can indirectly reduce ROS formation by increasing glutathione levels, thermogenesis, and energy expenditure. In contrast, UCP2 and UCP3 regulate fatty acid metabolism and insulin secretion by beta cells and modulate insulin sensitivity. Understanding the functions of UCPs may play a critical role in developing pharmacological strategies to combat T2D. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the protective role of various UCP homologs against age-related oxidative stress in T2D.
Keywords: uncoupling proteins, reactive oxygen species, aging, age-related diseases, diabetes
Published in DKUM: 23.08.2023; Views: 360; Downloads: 23
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