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Reduction of Neural Machine Translation Failures by Incorporating Statistical Machine Translation
Jani Dugonik, Mirjam Sepesy Maučec, Domen Verber, Janez Brest, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper proposes a hybrid machine translation (HMT) system that improves the quality of neural machine translation (NMT) by incorporating statistical machine translation (SMT). Therefore, two NMT systems and two SMT systems were built for the Slovenian-English language pair, each for translation in one direction. We used a multilingual language model to embed the source sentence and translations into the same vector space. From each vector, we extracted features based on the distances and similarities calculated between the source sentence and the NMT translation, and between the source sentence and the SMT translation. To select the best possible translation, we used several well-known classifiers to predict which translation system generated a better translation of the source sentence. The proposed method of combining SMT and NMT in the hybrid system is novel. Our framework is language-independent and can be applied to other languages supported by the multilingual language model. Our experiment involved empirical applications. We compared the performance of the classifiers, and the results demonstrate that our proposed HMT system achieved notable improvements in the BLEU score, with an increase of 1.5 points and 10.9 points for both translation directions, respectively.
Keywords: neural machine translation, statistical machine translation, sentence embedding, similarity, classification, hybrid machine translation
Published in DKUM: 20.02.2024; Views: 58; Downloads: 1
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Beiträge zur deutschen und slowenischen Phraseologie und Parömiologie
Vida Jesenšek, 2021, scientific monograph

Abstract: The monograph consists of three parts. Twelve contributions presented on several aspects of German and Slovenian phraseology represent a selection of authors phraseological studies, mostly related to the language contrastive (German-Slovene) research topic. Part I deals with typical aspects of proverbs from the perspective of system-related research. This is followed by contributions on the lexicographical and translational problems of phraseology (Part II). The volume ends with reflections on appropriate treatment of phraseology in the learning and teaching contexts (Part III). German as the primary language of observation plays an important role in all the contributions because its status as an influential language in Slovenia is increasingly challenged. It is worth mentioning that in the past, German used to exert much greater historical, cultural, and linguistic influence on the Slovenian society. By combining different research perspectives and linguistic contrastive approaches, the volume intends to appeal to linguists as well as practising translators and language teachers.
Keywords: phraseology, paremiology, German, Slovene, contrastive linguistics, translation, language‑didactics
Published in DKUM: 21.12.2023; Views: 240; Downloads: 10
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Bilingualism in Slovenian Istria : Studies and Issues in Its Preservation
Mojca Kompara Lukančič, Nives Lenassi, Sandro Paolucci, 2023

Abstract: The volume starts with an overview chapter of studies on bilingualism and bilingual individuals in general, and the particular aspects and characteristics of bilingualism in Slovenian Istria. It continues with three chapters focusing on Italian in the bilingual area of the Slovenian coast. The second chapter presents surveys on the position of bilingualism, the influence of Italian media, the results of the secondary school leaving exams in Italian, and the status of bilingualism in Slovenian schools in the bilingual Littoral communities. The third chapter offers an analysis of texts and documents translated from Slovenian into Italian; that is, bilingual texts available on the websites of the four bilingual municipalities: Koper, Izola, Piran, and Ankaran. The final chapter presents some detailed aspects of studies carried out on administrative texts of the bilingual municipalities, focusing on selected lexical units and acronyms, and offering translation solutions that guarantee and preserve minority rights and offer uniform terminology.
Keywords: the Italian language, bilingualism, terminology, translation, Slovenian Istria
Published in DKUM: 01.06.2023; Views: 318; Downloads: 52
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Cosmic Fairy Tales
Rok Vilčnik, 2023

Abstract: The English translation of Rok Vilčnik's marvelously ethereal Cosmic Fairy Tales is the result of almost a decade of collaboration between the author, translation and English language students and their professor at the University of Maribor’s Department of Translation Studies, mature translators, English language professors, editors, and revisers. The book includes translations of 50 fairy tales by the acclaimed Slovenian writer, poet, and playwright Rok Vilčnik, aka rokgre, written between 1989 and 2020 and accompanied by the author's original illustrations.
Keywords: literary translation, student translation, didactic translation, fiction, fairy tales
Published in DKUM: 31.01.2023; Views: 363; Downloads: 17
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The adventures of Tom Sawyer - a comparison of Slovenian translations on examples of mentions of religion and the church : magistrsko delo
Kaja Babić, 2022, master's thesis

Abstract: Translating does not simply consist of replacing words in the source language with words in the target language, it is influenced by the person doing the translating and the public for which the translation is intended. We wanted to examine if translators and their surrounding culture influence the way literary works are translated. We compared Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and its three Slovenian translations published in 1921, 1947 and 1960. We based our research on the social and political background of the periods in which the translations were made, mostly focusing on 1947 and the anti-Catholic movement in Slovenia, which was influenced by the Soviet Union. Therefore, we selected from the original text 30 passages that mention religion and the Church. In the analysis we have compared the three Slovene translations and determined that out of 30, only 10 examples exhibited a change in the meaning. One such example was found in the 1921 translation, six in the 1947 translation and four in the 1960 translation, one of the latter examples even expanded the meaning of a religious elements.
Keywords: Tom Sawyer, Mark Twain, translation, comparison, religion
Published in DKUM: 04.11.2022; Views: 407; Downloads: 32
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THE SALACIOUS SIDE OF SHAKESPEARE: Omissions and Paraphrase of Sexual Allusions and Wordplays in Slovene Translations of Romeo and Juliet
Ana Marić, 2020, master's thesis

Abstract: While many of his works have since been translated into Slovene, Shakespeare’s extensive vocabulary and clever phrasing are still relatively unexplored in the Slovene language, including the incessant use of obscene words and vulgar expressions in his texts that often end up lost in translation. The initiative of the thesis was to determine how much of Shakespeare’s suggestive text elements, sexual(ized) wordplays, and bawdy innuendos become subject to omission or heavily paraphrased and why. Based on a theoretical and analytical research, where the latter was centred around an analysis of the English original Romeo and Juliet, and two of its Slovene translations, specific text segments were evaluated based on the model for a linguistic analysis of text by Kitty Van Leuven-Zwart. The analysis covered a comparison between the original and its translations, whilst simultaneously comparing both translations in contrast to each other to see which dissimilarities of sexually suggestive and vulgar elements of text occur in the transition from the original to its translations. Results have shown that while dissimilarities appear in both translations to a similar degree, the categories of dissimilarity that mostly transpire during translation noticeably vary between the selected translations.
Keywords: Shakespeare, translation, wordplay, sexual allusions, vulgar language
Published in DKUM: 12.02.2021; Views: 684; Downloads: 52
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Diminutives in Three Slovene Translations of Hamlet: Contrastive Analysis of the Original and the Translations
Urša Marinšek, 2018, master's thesis

Abstract: The use and formation of diminutives in English and Slovene differ to a considerable extent. The main categorization of diminutives into two groups according to their morphological structure classifies them into analytic and syntactic diminutives. On the one hand, it seems that in the English language it is difficult to find syntactic diminutives; this language apparently favors the analytical ones. On the other hand, there is a high frequency of syntactical diminutives in Slovene. These general characteristics of the two languages are expected to be replicated in literary works, therefore, also in drama, which – at least in theory – comes as close to spoken discourse as possible. These differences will therefore become evident in the contrastive analysis of Shakespeare’s Hamlet and its three Slovene translations. Furthermore, it will be interesting to see how the diminutives, their structure, function and even existence will vary in the process of translation from one language into the other. This thesis thus explores diminutives in four versions of this famous play by William Shakespeare: the original Hamlet and its three Slovene translations, which were completed over a relatively long time span by three different Slovene translators. Contrastive analysis shows that there are significant differences when it comes to the usage of diminutives. It is not just their presence, absence or modification that is interesting, but more importantly it is their stylistic function. Diminutives in the traditional sense mark “smallness,” but several other important functions emerge within dramatic texts. Emotional nakedness proved to be one of the most important roles and functions. In this role, they can express endearment, sarcasm, irony, facetiousness and many other stylistic and semantic nuances. If a diminutive is present in the original and carries emotional markedness, it is highly important for the translator to do his or her best to preserve this markedness (or compensate for it with a similar type of markedness) in the translation and thus retain the style of the original. If the translator is unsuccessful in this undertaking, regardless of whether objective reasons for such translation shifts exist, the translation inevitably loses. Questions related to changes in the interpretative potential of the translation versus the original represent one of the central issues in this Master’s thesis. Shakespeare has a long tradition in the Slovene cultural space and, therefore, in the Slovene context – and vice versa: Slovene readers and theatregoers have been acquainted with his plays for a long time. Hamlet has been translated into Slovene more than five times, and even more adaptations exist. The first translation of Hamlet dates back to the late 19th century, and the most recent to 2013 (translated by Srečko Fišer), which makes a time span of more than a hundred years. Because of multiple existing translations, this drama is a perfect candidate for a contrastive analysis such as this thesis and its research into the preservation of stylistic elements in translation. Only three translations are examined in this thesis, but they differ from each other in many respects. Considering their core characteristics, we could afford to label each of them with a distinctive adjective: Oton Župančič’s translation could be seen as the “traditional” one, Janko Moder’s as “experimental” and Milan Jesih’s as “modern.” Each translator has his own approach to the translation of diminutives, their employment, function and even formation; in some cases (but not all), one could even call it strategy. This means that if there is a diminutive in the original, it is not necessary that all (if any) of these translators will preserve it.
Keywords: William Shakespeare, Hamlet, contrastive analysis, translation, stylistics, diminutives, emotional markedness
Published in DKUM: 03.10.2018; Views: 1036; Downloads: 83
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Lexicalisation patterns of rendering path descriptions in Polish translation from English
Dorota Chłopek, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: The article pertains to the powerful bi-categorial typology of languages developed by Talmy. The researcher generally points at satellite-framed languages and verb-framed languages in terms of conflating the semantic component of path, either to a satellite placed near a manner verb or to a verb root. Slobin expanded that typology by introducing a class of equipollently framed languages. English and Polish are both satellite-framed languages. Nonetheless, while English colloquially expresses ideas with constructions lexicalising precise path through satellites, Polish translation renders the path, neutralises it, changes it, or omits the path conveyed by the original version, which is illustrated by this paper.
Keywords: Talmy, typology, translation, pattern, English, Polish
Published in DKUM: 12.02.2018; Views: 1074; Downloads: 327
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Examples of constructions with the simple topological English prepositions in and at expressed in selected Slavic languages
Dorota Chłopek, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: The objects of study in this paper are selected English expressions with the simple topological prepositions in and at expressed in the following Slavic languages: Polish, Czech, Slovene, Serbian and Croatian. Simple locational, topological relations which the English language encodes through two separate prepositions in and at tend to be constructed by a single form in many Slavic languages. The concerns of the paper are selected English constructions expressing physical coincidence through in and functional coincidence through at, rendered into the five Slavic languages, where the scenes may not include the difference in dimensionality existing in the source expressions, which causes many translational problems.
Keywords: linguistics, English, grammar, proposal, translation, Slavic languages, topological constructions, prepositions, locational, func- tional coincidence, translation
Published in DKUM: 30.01.2018; Views: 1028; Downloads: 353
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Names in literary translation : a case study of English versions of the Slovenian tale Martin Krpan
Darja Mazi Leskovar, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: This article presents three English translations of the Slovenian tale Martin Krpan z Vrha (1858) by Fran Levstik and focuses on the translation of personal and geographical names with the aim of examining the application of domestication and foreignization translation strategies. The comparative analysis of the English names aims to find out if the cultural gap between the source and the target cultures has been diminishing over the years. The study also highlights the role of the chronotope that gives the work, one of the most frequently translated Slovenian texts, a distinctive cultural character.
Keywords: English translations of Martin Krpan, comparative analysis of translated name, domestication and foreignization strategies, chronotope, Slovene literature, literary translation
Published in DKUM: 30.11.2017; Views: 1199; Downloads: 150
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