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Dioxins and dioxin-like persistent organic pollutants in textiles and chemicals in the textile sector
Boštjan Križanec, Alenka Majcen Le Marechal, 2006, review article

Abstract: Over ▫$7x10^5$▫ tons of dyestuff is produced annually with more than 100.000 commercially available dyes. Synthesis of colorants involves a relatively large group of chemicals with complex syntheses. During the synthesis of colorants, highly toxic, cancerogenic and persistent organic compounds, such as dioxins, can be formed. Dioxins are related to halogenes, chlorine and bromine homologues being the most toxic and persistent. About 40% of globally used colorants contain organically bound chlorine. The use of colorants in textile industry, with their wide applications and complex chemistry could be a significant source of dioxins and/or precursor compounds for the formation of dioxins and other persistent organic pollutants. The aim of the paper is to give an overview of the dioxin-like compounds in chemicals, with emphasis on colorants, textiles and their fate in the environment.
Keywords: textile industry, dioxins, dyes, pigments, textiles, persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans
Published: 05.07.2017; Views: 553; Downloads: 293
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3.
Comparison of methods for detection of four common nosocomial pathogens on hospital textiles
Sabina Fijan, Sonja Šostar-Turk, Urška Rozman, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: Introduction: Although the most common vehicle for transmission of health-care acquired infections is the personto- person transmission route, the role of environment should not be ignored and hospital linen may contribute to the spreading of nosocomial infections. The contact plate method and swabbing are common methods for sampling microorganisms on textiles; however, results are available after two days as they are based on incubation followed by phenotypeidentification. An important alternative is using quick wash-off methods followed by PCR detection, which shortens the identification process from two days to a few hours. Methods: The following test microorganisms at different concentrations were inoculated onto textile swatches and dried overnight: Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Clostridium difficile. RODAC plate sampling as well as a non-destructive wash-off method for capturing microorganisms from the textilesusing a Morapex device were used. The elution suspension from the Morapex device was used for two methods. In the first method, classical incubation on selective media followed by phenotypic identification was used and in the second method DNA was extracted from the elution suspension followed by amplification and agarose gel electrophoresis to visualize amplified products. Conclusions: All chosen bacteria were found using all methods. However, the most sensitive proved to be detection using PCR amplification as we detected the sample with initial concentration of 102 cfu/mL inoculated onto the textile surface before drying. The final detectablerecovered bacterial concentration on textiles was up to 10 cfu/mL.
Keywords: health care associated infections, hospital textiles, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium difficile, Morapex
Published: 05.04.2017; Views: 1141; Downloads: 318
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4.
Review of computer models for fabric simulation
Simona Jevšnik, Fatma Kalaoğlu, Sena Terliksiz, Jure Purgaj, 2014, review article

Abstract: 3D computer technologies are closely linked to all textile fields ranging from the designing and constructing of fabrics and garments, virtual human body presentations, interactive virtual prototyping to virtual fashion shows and e-trading. This paper offers a review of frequently used methods for fabric simulation. The review is divided into two parts. The first part of the paper comprises currently used techniques, followed by the presentation of basic terms and fabric parameters required for fabric simulations. The second part discusses the approaches and methods for constructing computer models of fabrics. In conclusion, the list of used techniques and parameters for defining a computer fabric model are presented together with given future guidance.
Keywords: CAD/CAM in textiles, fabric simulations, fabric models
Published: 21.12.2015; Views: 787; Downloads: 411
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5.
Real-time polymerase chain reaction for quantitative assessment of common pathogens associated with healthcare-acquired infections on hospital textiles
Urška Rozman, Sabina Fijan, Sonja Šostar-Turk, Vid Mlakar, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: A hospital environment may act as a significant reservoir for potential pathogens that can be transmitted with hospital textiles, which could represent a source of healthcare-acquired infections. Quantitative assessment of nosocomial pathogens with real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on textiles can serve to verify the achievement of standards for textile hygiene of hospital laundry that assess the risk for acquiring hospital infection frominappropriately disinfected textiles. The aim of the study was to establish qPCR for quantitative assessment of selected common nosocomial pathogens (Clostridium difficile, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniaeand Pseudomonas aeruginosa) on hospital textiles and to compare the efficiency of the molecular method to the standard procedures for evaluating the bio burden of textiles in hospitals. This study demonstrated that presenceof nosocomial pathogens on hospital textiles can be confirmed with qPCR even where conventional techniques do not give any results. qPCR offers apossibility to confirm the presence of microorganisms in dead or viable but non-culturable states that cannot be detected by conventional sampling techniques but may still pose a hazard to public health.
Keywords: healthcare-acquired infections, hospital textiles, Clostridium difficile, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 1017; Downloads: 104
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6.
Computer simulation of needle and take-up lever mechanism using the ADAMS software package
Darja Žunič-Lojen, Karl Gotlih, 2003, original scientific article

Abstract: A knowledge of the interactions between a sewing machinećs mechanisms and the sewing thread in the stitch formation process should help us to understand thread loadings in the sewing process. The aim of this work is to analyse the needle bar's kinematics with the thread take-up lever by using computer simulation. A cyclogram was drawn on the basis of modelling and kinematic simulation of a needle bar with a thread take-up lever, and measurements of the thread tension forces in the sewing process. This cyclogram enables analysis of the interactions between the thread and the elements of the sewing machine. The results of these simulations are curves that describe the movements at characteristic points on the mechanism. These give the possibility of pinpointing the exact positions of the mechanism's elements with respect to the main shaft rotation in the sewing machine.
Keywords: textiles, garment manufacturing, sewing, thread, stitch fomation, thread loading, cyclogram, computer simulation
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1609; Downloads: 23
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7.
The influence of structural properties on the dye diffusion and dyeability of PA 6 fibres
Simona Strnad, Slava Jeler, Karin Stana-Kleinschek, Tatjana Kreže, 2003, original scientific article

Abstract: The relationships were investigated between the structural and dyeing properties of different structurally modified PA 6 fibers. PA 6 monofilament yarn samples were applied having different crystalline degrees and different content of alpha, respectively gamma crystalline modification. The diffusion coefficients of two different acid dyes were determined together with the content of dyestuff absorbed (under specific conditions) by fiber samples. In order to estimate colorimetry method from the viewpoint of polymer structural change detection, the colors of the dyed PA 6 samples were determined (L*, a*,b*, C*, h coordinates) and the color differences (L*, a*, b*, C*, H*, E*) were calculated between untreated standard and structurally modified samples. The dyeability of PA 6 fibers depended mainly on the way in which crystallinity had been achieved, i.e. on the materialćs history. Different crystalline modifications caused different sorption properties and fiber dyeability. Smaller increases (app 20%) of crystallinity degree caused a decrease in diffusion coefficients. Contrary to expectations, the significant increase of crystallinity degree (app 50%) had an influence on the increase ofdyeability, presumably owing to the formation of larger empty spaces in the structure. The results achieved by colorimetry were in good correlation with dye absorption measurements. The colorimetry of dyed fiber samples was sensitive enough to detect even small differences in the quantities of absorbed dyestuff.
Keywords: textiles, PA 6 fibres, dyeing, dyeability, fibre structure, crystallinity, chemical modification
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1768; Downloads: 20
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8.
Grafting of ethylcellulose microcapsules onto cotton fibres
Roxana Badulescu, Vera Vivod, Darja Jaušovec, Bojana Vončina, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: In this paper a treatment of cotton with ethylcellulose (EC) microcapsules wasinvestigated. EC microcapsules containing Rosemary oil were obtained by phase separation method. The surface and morphology of microcapsules were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microcapsules with a regular spherical shape in the 10-90 m size range were prepared and grafted onto cotton using the crosslinking reagent 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) in the presence of catalysts. The influence of the two catalysts, cyanamide (CA) and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) on curing efficiency (grafting) was investigated. SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to study the formation of ester bonds between BTCA and hydroxyl groups of cotton and/or hydroxyl groups of EC. When DCC was used as acatalyst, the esterification took place slowly at room temperature. In the case of CA, the cotton was cured at 110 °C for several minutes. After 2 min curing, the microcapsules, which kept their original shape, were bonded to thecotton fibers. Increasing the curing time altered the microcapsule shell. Grafting and crosslinking reactions of the thermofixed EC microcapsules onto cotton were proposed.
Keywords: textiles, chemical modification, cotton fibres, ethylcellulose, microcapsules, BTCA, SEM, FT-IR, grafting
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1507; Downloads: 34
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9.
Implementing sustainable laundering procedures for textiles in a commercial laundry and thus decreasing wastewater burden
Sabina Fijan, Rebeka Fijan, Sonja Šostar-Turk, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents a research on how to optimize a laundering program to reduce wastewater burden thus achieving a more sustainable laundering procedure. A green surgical textiles program was investigated and the first step of optimization was performed based on the results of measuring certain parameters in the water taken from individual chambers. The wastewater parameters were reduced after optimization of the program although effluent treatment plants for water reuse remain necessary. An experimental laundering procedure with a high dosage of sodium hypochlorite was also conducted in order to observe a correlation between measured values of active chlorine and conductivity. As an approximate correlation was found this could result in thepossibility of incorporating a sensor in the washing machine measuring online the conductivity with the possibility of regulating the dosage of sodium hypochlorite and thus preventing overdosing, which increases the damages of the laundered textiles and the burden of wastewater.
Keywords: laundry wastewater, optimization, textiles, sustainable laundering
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1424; Downloads: 77
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10.
Evaluating the bending rigidity of flat textiles with the use of an Instron tensile tester
Mirosława Kocik, Witold Żurek, Izabella Krucinska, Jelka Geršak, Jan Jakubczyk, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: The purpose of this work is to verify the possibility of using an Instron tensile tester for evaluating those mechanical properties of flat textile fabrics which are responsible for their handle properties. A method of evaluating the bending rigidity of woven fabrics was developed. The method consists in axially compressing samples fixed at both ends and placed in a vertical position, which leads to their buckling. The bending rigidity was determined on the basis of the critical maximum force occurring at buckling, and the curvature of the buckled sample which appears as result of the action of this force. The results obtained by this method were compared with those obtained with the use of the FAST system. The good compatibility of both these methods was proved by the correlation coefficients.
Keywords: flat textiles, mechanical properties, measurements, fabric handle, bending rigidity, bending moment, curvature, buckling, buckling length
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1330; Downloads: 35
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